Bitcoin Mining – It’s About Solving Problems

How does solving "complex mathematical problems" generate bitcoin?

I read online that bitcoin mining essentially involves using expensive rigs to solve very complex mathematical problems. What are these problems exactly and why do their solutions hold monetary value?
submitted by LoeIQ to NoStupidQuestions [link] [comments]

Bitcoin mentioned around Reddit: How does solving "complex mathematical problems" generate bitcoin? /r/NoStupidQuestions

Bitcoin mentioned around Reddit: How does solving submitted by BitcoinAllBot to BitcoinAll [link] [comments]

HELP..I have a mathematical problem with bitcoin and you are all solving complex stuff..

the main point is.
1000 coins are produced in a certain amount of time.. using xyz amount of elecrticity...
If twenty thousand times more electricity is used then still only 1000 coins are produced in that time..
So the coins could be produced a lot more efficiently but the network would have to work out how to share them out rather than waging computing power warfare...
submitted by coinred to Bitcoin [link] [comments]

Infuriating WSJ Quote: "Users "mine," or create, bitcoins by tapping high-powered computers to answer complex mathematical problems. The coins are stored in digital wallets that have proven to be susceptible to hacking."

ARRRRRRRGGGGGGGG!!!!!!1!!11!!1!!
https://www.google.com/url?sa=t&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=web&cd=1&cad=rja&uact=8&ved=0CC0QqQIwAA&url=http%3A%2F%2Fonline.wsj.com%2Farticle%2FSB10001424052702303873604579493901002691642.html&ei=iSNHU-qNKoX4yAGQt4HABw&usg=AFQjCNEntWtp_Yivc6hxt7QeY7OTdXPebQ&sig2=3SEk2oFCXaLLRGeStqqagg&bvm=bv.64542518,d.aWc
submitted by BTCFinance to Bitcoin [link] [comments]

Dragonchain Great Reddit Scaling Bake-Off Public Proposal

Dragonchain Great Reddit Scaling Bake-Off Public Proposal

Dragonchain Public Proposal TL;DR:

Dragonchain has demonstrated twice Reddit’s entire total daily volume (votes, comments, and posts per Reddit 2019 Year in Review) in a 24-hour demo on an operational network. Every single transaction on Dragonchain is decentralized immediately through 5 levels of Dragon Net, and then secured with combined proof on Bitcoin, Ethereum, Ethereum Classic, and Binance Chain, via Interchain. At the time, in January 2020, the entire cost of the demo was approximately $25K on a single system (transaction fees locked at $0.0001/txn). With current fees (lowest fee $0.0000025/txn), this would cost as little as $625.
Watch Joe walk through the entire proposal and answer questions on YouTube.
This proposal is also available on the Dragonchain blog.

Hello Reddit and Ethereum community!

I’m Joe Roets, Founder & CEO of Dragonchain. When the team and I first heard about The Great Reddit Scaling Bake-Off we were intrigued. We believe we have the solutions Reddit seeks for its community points system and we have them at scale.
For your consideration, we have submitted our proposal below. The team at Dragonchain and I welcome and look forward to your technical questions, philosophical feedback, and fair criticism, to build a scaling solution for Reddit that will empower its users. Because our architecture is unlike other blockchain platforms out there today, we expect to receive many questions while people try to grasp our project. I will answer all questions here in this thread on Reddit, and I've answered some questions in the stream on YouTube.
We have seen good discussions so far in the competition. We hope that Reddit’s scaling solution will emerge from The Great Reddit Scaling Bake-Off and that Reddit will have great success with the implementation.

Executive summary

Dragonchain is a robust open source hybrid blockchain platform that has proven to withstand the passing of time since our inception in 2014. We have continued to evolve to harness the scalability of private nodes, yet take full advantage of the security of public decentralized networks, like Ethereum. We have a live, operational, and fully functional Interchain network integrating Bitcoin, Ethereum, Ethereum Classic, and ~700 independent Dragonchain nodes. Every transaction is secured to Ethereum, Bitcoin, and Ethereum Classic. Transactions are immediately usable on chain, and the first decentralization is seen within 20 seconds on Dragon Net. Security increases further to public networks ETH, BTC, and ETC within 10 minutes to 2 hours. Smart contracts can be written in any executable language, offering full freedom to existing developers. We invite any developer to watch the demo, play with our SDK’s, review open source code, and to help us move forward. Dragonchain specializes in scalable loyalty & rewards solutions and has built a decentralized social network on chain, with very affordable transaction costs. This experience can be combined with the insights Reddit and the Ethereum community have gained in the past couple of months to roll out the solution at a rapid pace.

Response and PoC

In The Great Reddit Scaling Bake-Off post, Reddit has asked for a series of demonstrations, requirements, and other considerations. In this section, we will attempt to answer all of these requests.

Live Demo

A live proof of concept showing hundreds of thousands of transactions
On Jan 7, 2020, Dragonchain hosted a 24-hour live demonstration during which a quarter of a billion (250 million+) transactions executed fully on an operational network. Every single transaction on Dragonchain is decentralized immediately through 5 levels of Dragon Net, and then secured with combined proof on Bitcoin, Ethereum, Ethereum Classic, and Binance Chain, via Interchain. This means that every single transaction is secured by, and traceable to these networks. An attack on this system would require a simultaneous attack on all of the Interchained networks.
24 hours in 4 minutes (YouTube):
24 hours in 4 minutes
The demonstration was of a single business system, and any user is able to scale this further, by running multiple systems simultaneously. Our goals for the event were to demonstrate a consistent capacity greater than that of Visa over an extended time period.
Tooling to reproduce our demo is available here:
https://github.com/dragonchain/spirit-bomb

Source Code

Source code (for on & off-chain components as well tooling used for the PoC). The source code does not have to be shared publicly, but if Reddit decides to use a particular solution it will need to be shared with Reddit at some point.

Scaling

How it works & scales

Architectural Scaling

Dragonchain’s architecture attacks the scalability issue from multiple angles. Dragonchain is a hybrid blockchain platform, wherein every transaction is protected on a business node to the requirements of that business or purpose. A business node may be held completely private or may be exposed or replicated to any level of exposure desired.
Every node has its own blockchain and is independently scalable. Dragonchain established Context Based Verification as its consensus model. Every transaction is immediately usable on a trust basis, and in time is provable to an increasing level of decentralized consensus. A transaction will have a level of decentralization to independently owned and deployed Dragonchain nodes (~700 nodes) within seconds, and full decentralization to BTC and ETH within minutes or hours. Level 5 nodes (Interchain nodes) function to secure all transactions to public or otherwise external chains such as Bitcoin and Ethereum. These nodes scale the system by aggregating multiple blocks into a single Interchain transaction on a cadence. This timing is configurable based upon average fees for each respective chain. For detailed information about Dragonchain’s architecture, and Context Based Verification, please refer to the Dragonchain Architecture Document.

Economic Scaling

An interesting feature of Dragonchain’s network consensus is its economics and scarcity model. Since Dragon Net nodes (L2-L4) are independent staking nodes, deployment to cloud platforms would allow any of these nodes to scale to take on a large percentage of the verification work. This is great for scalability, but not good for the economy, because there is no scarcity, and pricing would develop a downward spiral and result in fewer verification nodes. For this reason, Dragonchain uses TIME as scarcity.
TIME is calculated as the number of Dragons held, multiplied by the number of days held. TIME influences the user’s access to features within the Dragonchain ecosystem. It takes into account both the Dragon balance and length of time each Dragon is held. TIME is staked by users against every verification node and dictates how much of the transaction fees are awarded to each participating node for every block.
TIME also dictates the transaction fee itself for the business node. TIME is staked against a business node to set a deterministic transaction fee level (see transaction fee table below in Cost section). This is very interesting in a discussion about scaling because it guarantees independence for business implementation. No matter how much traffic appears on the entire network, a business is guaranteed to not see an increased transaction fee rate.

Scaled Deployment

Dragonchain uses Docker and Kubernetes to allow the use of best practices traditional system scaling. Dragonchain offers managed nodes with an easy to use web based console interface. The user may also deploy a Dragonchain node within their own datacenter or favorite cloud platform. Users have deployed Dragonchain nodes on-prem on Amazon AWS, Google Cloud, MS Azure, and other hosting platforms around the world. Any executable code, anything you can write, can be written into a smart contract. This flexibility is what allows us to say that developers with no blockchain experience can use any code language to access the benefits of blockchain. Customers have used NodeJS, Python, Java, and even BASH shell script to write smart contracts on Dragonchain.
With Docker containers, we achieve better separation of concerns, faster deployment, higher reliability, and lower response times.
We chose Kubernetes for its self-healing features, ability to run multiple services on one server, and its large and thriving development community. It is resilient, scalable, and automated. OpenFaaS allows us to package smart contracts as Docker images for easy deployment.
Contract deployment time is now bounded only by the size of the Docker image being deployed but remains fast even for reasonably large images. We also take advantage of Docker’s flexibility and its ability to support any language that can run on x86 architecture. Any image, public or private, can be run as a smart contract using Dragonchain.

Flexibility in Scaling

Dragonchain’s architecture considers interoperability and integration as key features. From inception, we had a goal to increase adoption via integration with real business use cases and traditional systems.
We envision the ability for Reddit, in the future, to be able to integrate alternate content storage platforms or other financial services along with the token.
  • LBRY - To allow users to deploy content natively to LBRY
  • MakerDAO to allow users to lend small amounts backed by their Reddit community points.
  • STORJ/SIA to allow decentralized on chain storage of portions of content. These integrations or any other are relatively easy to integrate on Dragonchain with an Interchain implementation.

Cost

Cost estimates (on-chain and off-chain) For the purpose of this proposal, we assume that all transactions are on chain (posts, replies, and votes).
On the Dragonchain network, transaction costs are deterministic/predictable. By staking TIME on the business node (as described above) Reddit can reduce transaction costs to as low as $0.0000025 per transaction.
Dragonchain Fees Table

Getting Started

How to run it
Building on Dragonchain is simple and requires no blockchain experience. Spin up a business node (L1) in our managed environment (AWS), run it in your own cloud environment, or on-prem in your own datacenter. Clear documentation will walk you through the steps of spinning up your first Dragonchain Level 1 Business node.
Getting started is easy...
  1. Download Dragonchain’s dctl
  2. Input three commands into a terminal
  3. Build an image
  4. Run it
More information can be found in our Get started documents.

Architecture
Dragonchain is an open source hybrid platform. Through Dragon Net, each chain combines the power of a public blockchain (like Ethereum) with the privacy of a private blockchain.
Dragonchain organizes its network into five separate levels. A Level 1, or business node, is a totally private blockchain only accessible through the use of public/private keypairs. All business logic, including smart contracts, can be executed on this node directly and added to the chain.
After creating a block, the Level 1 business node broadcasts a version stripped of sensitive private data to Dragon Net. Three Level 2 Validating nodes validate the transaction based on guidelines determined from the business. A Level 3 Diversity node checks that the level 2 nodes are from a diverse array of locations. A Level 4 Notary node, hosted by a KYC partner, then signs the validation record received from the Level 3 node. The transaction hash is ledgered to the Level 5 public chain to take advantage of the hash power of massive public networks.
Dragon Net can be thought of as a “blockchain of blockchains”, where every level is a complete private blockchain. Because an L1 can send to multiple nodes on a single level, proof of existence is distributed among many places in the network. Eventually, proof of existence reaches level 5 and is published on a public network.

API Documentation

APIs (on chain & off)

SDK Source

Nobody’s Perfect

Known issues or tradeoffs
  • Dragonchain is open source and even though the platform is easy enough for developers to code in any language they are comfortable with, we do not have so large a developer community as Ethereum. We would like to see the Ethereum developer community (and any other communities) become familiar with our SDK’s, our solutions, and our platform, to unlock the full potential of our Ethereum Interchain. Long ago we decided to prioritize both Bitcoin and Ethereum Interchains. We envision an ecosystem that encompasses different projects to give developers the ability to take full advantage of all the opportunities blockchain offers to create decentralized solutions not only for Reddit but for all of our current platforms and systems. We believe that together we will take the adoption of blockchain further. We currently have additional Interchain with Ethereum Classic. We look forward to Interchain with other blockchains in the future. We invite all blockchains projects who believe in decentralization and security to Interchain with Dragonchain.
  • While we only have 700 nodes compared to 8,000 Ethereum and 10,000 Bitcoin nodes. We harness those 18,000 nodes to scale to extremely high levels of security. See Dragonchain metrics.
  • Some may consider the centralization of Dragonchain’s business nodes as an issue at first glance, however, the model is by design to protect business data. We do not consider this a drawback as these nodes can make any, none, or all data public. Depending upon the implementation, every subreddit could have control of its own business node, for potential business and enterprise offerings, bringing new alternative revenue streams to Reddit.

Costs and resources

Summary of cost & resource information for both on-chain & off-chain components used in the PoC, as well as cost & resource estimates for further scaling. If your PoC is not on mainnet, make note of any mainnet caveats (such as congestion issues).
Every transaction on the PoC system had a transaction fee of $0.0001 (one-hundredth of a cent USD). At 256MM transactions, the demo cost $25,600. With current operational fees, the same demonstration would cost $640 USD.
For the demonstration, to achieve throughput to mimic a worldwide payments network, we modeled several clients in AWS and 4-5 business nodes to handle the traffic. The business nodes were tuned to handle higher throughput by adjusting memory and machine footprint on AWS. This flexibility is valuable to implementing a system such as envisioned by Reddit. Given that Reddit’s daily traffic (posts, replies, and votes) is less than half that of our demo, we would expect that the entire Reddit system could be handled on 2-5 business nodes using right-sized containers on AWS or similar environments.
Verification was accomplished on the operational Dragon Net network with over 700 independently owned verification nodes running around the world at no cost to the business other than paid transaction fees.

Requirements

Scaling

This PoC should scale to the numbers below with minimal costs (both on & off-chain). There should also be a clear path to supporting hundreds of millions of users.
Over a 5 day period, your scaling PoC should be able to handle:
*100,000 point claims (minting & distributing points) *25,000 subscriptions *75,000 one-off points burning *100,000 transfers
During Dragonchain’s 24 hour demo, the above required numbers were reached within the first few minutes.
Reddit’s total activity is 9000% more than Ethereum’s total transaction level. Even if you do not include votes, it is still 700% more than Ethereum’s current volume. Dragonchain has demonstrated that it can handle 250 million transactions a day, and it’s architecture allows for multiple systems to work at that level simultaneously. In our PoC, we demonstrate double the full capacity of Reddit, and every transaction was proven all the way to Bitcoin and Ethereum.
Reddit Scaling on Ethereum

Decentralization

Solutions should not depend on any single third-party provider. We prefer solutions that do not depend on specific entities such as Reddit or another provider, and solutions with no single point of control or failure in off-chain components but recognize there are numerous trade-offs to consider
Dragonchain’s architecture calls for a hybrid approach. Private business nodes hold the sensitive data while the validation and verification of transactions for the business are decentralized within seconds and secured to public blockchains within 10 minutes to 2 hours. Nodes could potentially be controlled by owners of individual subreddits for more organic decentralization.
  • Billing is currently centralized - there is a path to federation and decentralization of a scaled billing solution.
  • Operational multi-cloud
  • Operational on-premises capabilities
  • Operational deployment to any datacenter
  • Over 700 independent Community Verification Nodes with proof of ownership
  • Operational Interchain (Interoperable to Bitcoin, Ethereum, and Ethereum Classic, open to more)

Usability Scaling solutions should have a simple end user experience.

Users shouldn't have to maintain any extra state/proofs, regularly monitor activity, keep track of extra keys, or sign anything other than their normal transactions
Dragonchain and its customers have demonstrated extraordinary usability as a feature in many applications, where users do not need to know that the system is backed by a live blockchain. Lyceum is one of these examples, where the progress of academy courses is being tracked, and successful completion of courses is rewarded with certificates on chain. Our @Save_The_Tweet bot is popular on Twitter. When used with one of the following hashtags - #please, #blockchain, #ThankYou, or #eternalize the tweet is saved through Eternal to multiple blockchains. A proof report is available for future reference. Other examples in use are DEN, our decentralized social media platform, and our console, where users can track their node rewards, view their TIME, and operate a business node.
Examples:

Transactions complete in a reasonable amount of time (seconds or minutes, not hours or days)
All transactions are immediately usable on chain by the system. A transaction begins the path to decentralization at the conclusion of a 5-second block when it gets distributed across 5 separate community run nodes. Full decentralization occurs within 10 minutes to 2 hours depending on which interchain (Bitcoin, Ethereum, or Ethereum Classic) the transaction hits first. Within approximately 2 hours, the combined hash power of all interchained blockchains secures the transaction.

Free to use for end users (no gas fees, or fixed/minimal fees that Reddit can pay on their behalf)
With transaction pricing as low as $0.0000025 per transaction, it may be considered reasonable for Reddit to cover transaction fees for users.
All of Reddit's Transactions on Blockchain (month)
Community points can be earned by users and distributed directly to their Reddit account in batch (as per Reddit minting plan), and allow users to withdraw rewards to their Ethereum wallet whenever they wish. Withdrawal fees can be paid by either user or Reddit. This model has been operating inside the Dragonchain system since 2018, and many security and financial compliance features can be optionally added. We feel that this capability greatly enhances user experience because it is seamless to a regular user without cryptocurrency experience, yet flexible to a tech savvy user. With regard to currency or token transactions, these would occur on the Reddit network, verified to BTC and ETH. These transactions would incur the $0.0000025 transaction fee. To estimate this fee we use the monthly active Reddit users statista with a 60% adoption rate and an estimated 10 transactions per month average resulting in an approximate $720 cost across the system. Reddit could feasibly incur all associated internal network charges (mining/minting, transfer, burn) as these are very low and controllable fees.
Reddit Internal Token Transaction Fees

Reddit Ethereum Token Transaction Fees
When we consider further the Ethereum fees that might be incurred, we have a few choices for a solution.
  1. Offload all Ethereum transaction fees (user withdrawals) to interested users as they wish to withdraw tokens for external use or sale.
  2. Cover Ethereum transaction fees by aggregating them on a timed schedule. Users would request withdrawal (from Reddit or individual subreddits), and they would be transacted on the Ethereum network every hour (or some other schedule).
  3. In a combination of the above, customers could cover aggregated fees.
  4. Integrate with alternate Ethereum roll up solutions or other proposals to aggregate minting and distribution transactions onto Ethereum.

Bonus Points

Users should be able to view their balances & transactions via a blockchain explorer-style interface
From interfaces for users who have no knowledge of blockchain technology to users who are well versed in blockchain terms such as those present in a typical block explorer, a system powered by Dragonchain has flexibility on how to provide balances and transaction data to users. Transactions can be made viewable in an Eternal Proof Report, which displays raw data along with TIME staking information and traceability all the way to Bitcoin, Ethereum, and every other Interchained network. The report shows fields such as transaction ID, timestamp, block ID, multiple verifications, and Interchain proof. See example here.
Node payouts within the Dragonchain console are listed in chronological order and can be further seen in either Dragons or USD. See example here.
In our social media platform, Dragon Den, users can see, in real-time, their NRG and MTR balances. See example here.
A new influencer app powered by Dragonchain, Raiinmaker, breaks down data into a user friendly interface that shows coin portfolio, redeemed rewards, and social scores per campaign. See example here.

Exiting is fast & simple
Withdrawing funds on Dragonchain’s console requires three clicks, however, withdrawal scenarios with more enhanced security features per Reddit’s discretion are obtainable.

Interoperability Compatibility with third party apps (wallets/contracts/etc) is necessary.
Proven interoperability at scale that surpasses the required specifications. Our entire platform consists of interoperable blockchains connected to each other and traditional systems. APIs are well documented. Third party permissions are possible with a simple smart contract without the end user being aware. No need to learn any specialized proprietary language. Any code base (not subsets) is usable within a Docker container. Interoperable with any blockchain or traditional APIs. We’ve witnessed relatively complex systems built by engineers with no blockchain or cryptocurrency experience. We’ve also demonstrated the creation of smart contracts within minutes built with BASH shell and Node.js. Please see our source code and API documentation.

Scaling solutions should be extensible and allow third parties to build on top of it Open source and extensible
APIs should be well documented and stable

Documentation should be clear and complete
For full documentation, explore our docs, SDK’s, Github repo’s, architecture documents, original Disney documentation, and other links or resources provided in this proposal.

Third-party permissionless integrations should be possible & straightforward Smart contracts are Docker based, can be written in any language, use full language (not subsets), and can therefore be integrated with any system including traditional system APIs. Simple is better. Learning an uncommon or proprietary language should not be necessary.
Advanced knowledge of mathematics, cryptography, or L2 scaling should not be required. Compatibility with common utilities & toolchains is expected.
Dragonchain business nodes and smart contracts leverage Docker to allow the use of literally any language or executable code. No proprietary language is necessary. We’ve witnessed relatively complex systems built by engineers with no blockchain or cryptocurrency experience. We’ve also demonstrated the creation of smart contracts within minutes built with BASH shell and Node.js.

Bonus

Bonus Points: Show us how it works. Do you have an idea for a cool new use case for Community Points? Build it!

TIME

Community points could be awarded to Reddit users based upon TIME too, whereas the longer someone is part of a subreddit, the more community points someone naturally gained, even if not actively commenting or sharing new posts. A daily login could be required for these community points to be credited. This grants awards to readers too and incentivizes readers to create an account on Reddit if they browse the website often. This concept could also be leveraged to provide some level of reputation based upon duration and consistency of contribution to a community subreddit.

Dragon Den

Dragonchain has already built a social media platform that harnesses community involvement. Dragon Den is a decentralized community built on the Dragonchain blockchain platform. Dragon Den is Dragonchain’s answer to fake news, trolling, and censorship. It incentivizes the creation and evaluation of quality content within communities. It could be described as being a shareholder of a subreddit or Reddit in its entirety. The more your subreddit is thriving, the more rewarding it will be. Den is currently in a public beta and in active development, though the real token economy is not live yet. There are different tokens for various purposes. Two tokens are Lair Ownership Rights (LOR) and Lair Ownership Tokens (LOT). LOT is a non-fungible token for ownership of a specific Lair. LOT will only be created and converted from LOR.
Energy (NRG) and Matter (MTR) work jointly. Your MTR determines how much NRG you receive in a 24-hour period. Providing quality content, or evaluating content will earn MTR.

Security. Users have full ownership & control of their points.
All community points awarded based upon any type of activity or gift, are secured and provable to all Interchain networks (currently BTC, ETH, ETC). Users are free to spend and withdraw their points as they please, depending on the features Reddit wants to bring into production.

Balances and transactions cannot be forged, manipulated, or blocked by Reddit or anyone else
Users can withdraw their balance to their ERC20 wallet, directly through Reddit. Reddit can cover the fees on their behalf, or the user covers this with a portion of their balance.

Users should own their points and be able to get on-chain ERC20 tokens without permission from anyone else
Through our console users can withdraw their ERC20 rewards. This can be achieved on Reddit too. Here is a walkthrough of our console, though this does not show the quick withdrawal functionality, a user can withdraw at any time. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=aNlTMxnfVHw

Points should be recoverable to on-chain ERC20 tokens even if all third-parties involved go offline
If necessary, signed transactions from the Reddit system (e.g. Reddit + Subreddit) can be sent to the Ethereum smart contract for minting.

A public, third-party review attesting to the soundness of the design should be available
To our knowledge, at least two large corporations, including a top 3 accounting firm, have conducted positive reviews. These reviews have never been made public, as Dragonchain did not pay or contract for these studies to be released.

Bonus points
Public, third-party implementation review available or in progress
See above

Compatibility with HSMs & hardware wallets
For the purpose of this proposal, all tokenization would be on the Ethereum network using standard token contracts and as such, would be able to leverage all hardware wallet and Ethereum ecosystem services.

Other Considerations

Minting/distributing tokens is not performed by Reddit directly
This operation can be automated by smart contract on Ethereum. Subreddits can if desired have a role to play.

One off point burning, as well as recurring, non-interactive point burning (for subreddit memberships) should be possible and scalable
This is possible and scalable with interaction between Dragonchain Reddit system and Ethereum token contract(s).

Fully open-source solutions are strongly preferred
Dragonchain is fully open source (see section on Disney release after conclusion).

Conclusion

Whether it is today, or in the future, we would like to work together to bring secure flexibility to the highest standards. It is our hope to be considered by Ethereum, Reddit, and other integrative solutions so we may further discuss the possibilities of implementation. In our public demonstration, 256 million transactions were handled in our operational network on chain in 24 hours, for the low cost of $25K, which if run today would cost $625. Dragonchain’s interoperable foundation provides the atmosphere necessary to implement a frictionless community points system. Thank you for your consideration of our proposal. We look forward to working with the community to make something great!

Disney Releases Blockchain Platform as Open Source

The team at Disney created the Disney Private Blockchain Platform. The system was a hybrid interoperable blockchain platform for ledgering and smart contract development geared toward solving problems with blockchain adoption and usability. All objective evaluation would consider the team’s output a success. We released a list of use cases that we explored in some capacity at Disney, and our input on blockchain standardization as part of our participation in the W3C Blockchain Community Group.
https://lists.w3.org/Archives/Public/public-blockchain/2016May/0052.html

Open Source

In 2016, Roets proposed to release the platform as open source to spread the technology outside of Disney, as others within the W3C group were interested in the solutions that had been created inside of Disney.
Following a long process, step by step, the team met requirements for release. Among the requirements, the team had to:
  • Obtain VP support and approval for the release
  • Verify ownership of the software to be released
  • Verify that no proprietary content would be released
  • Convince the organization that there was a value to the open source community
  • Convince the organization that there was a value to Disney
  • Offer the plan for ongoing maintenance of the project outside of Disney
  • Itemize competing projects
  • Verify no conflict of interest
  • Preferred license
  • Change the project name to not use the name Disney, any Disney character, or any other associated IP - proposed Dragonchain - approved
  • Obtain legal approval
  • Approval from corporate, parks, and other business units
  • Approval from multiple Disney patent groups Copyright holder defined by Disney (Disney Connected and Advanced Technologies)
  • Trademark searches conducted for the selected name Dragonchain
  • Obtain IT security approval
  • Manual review of OSS components conducted
  • OWASP Dependency and Vulnerability Check Conducted
  • Obtain technical (software) approval
  • Offer management, process, and financial plans for the maintenance of the project.
  • Meet list of items to be addressed before release
  • Remove all Disney project references and scripts
  • Create a public distribution list for email communications
  • Remove Roets’ direct and internal contact information
  • Create public Slack channel and move from Disney slack channels
  • Create proper labels for issue tracking
  • Rename internal private Github repository
  • Add informative description to Github page
  • Expand README.md with more specific information
  • Add information beyond current “Blockchains are Magic”
  • Add getting started sections and info on cloning/forking the project
  • Add installation details
  • Add uninstall process
  • Add unit, functional, and integration test information
  • Detail how to contribute and get involved
  • Describe the git workflow that the project will use
  • Move to public, non-Disney git repository (Github or Bitbucket)
  • Obtain Disney Open Source Committee approval for release
On top of meeting the above criteria, as part of the process, the maintainer of the project had to receive the codebase on their own personal email and create accounts for maintenance (e.g. Github) with non-Disney accounts. Given the fact that the project spanned multiple business units, Roets was individually responsible for its ongoing maintenance. Because of this, he proposed in the open source application to create a non-profit organization to hold the IP and maintain the project. This was approved by Disney.
The Disney Open Source Committee approved the application known as OSSRELEASE-10, and the code was released on October 2, 2016. Disney decided to not issue a press release.
Original OSSRELASE-10 document

Dragonchain Foundation

The Dragonchain Foundation was created on January 17, 2017. https://den.social/l/Dragonchain/24130078352e485d96d2125082151cf0/dragonchain-and-disney/
submitted by j0j0r0 to ethereum [link] [comments]

What is Distributed Ledger Technology (DLT)?

What is Distributed Ledger Technology (DLT)?
Distributed Ledger Technology (DLT) is one of the fastest-growing tech sectors in the world. While most people consider the terms blockchain and DLT as interchangeable, this is not the case. In fact, blockchains are just one small portion of the DLT sector. Importantly, a distributed ledger is a database that exists in duplicate across multiple points of a network.

https://preview.redd.it/2rwo8f13bsr51.jpg?width=700&format=pjpg&auto=webp&s=f940280d2d89bfd66b3b249a3f905f79cdd0d65f
As the name suggests, the main characteristic of these networks is their decentralization. Consequently, all DLTs contain the technological infrastructure and associated protocols required to run a distributed network. These processes include the ability to collect, validate, and access immutable data across several nodes of the same network.
How Distributed Ledger Technology Works
DLTs can function in many different ways. However, all DLTs rely on some form of consensus to confirm the state of the network. A consensus mechanism is a protocol that allows network participants to validate the network’s state. In terms of blockchain distributed ledger technology, the most common forms of consensus mechanisms are the Proof-of-Work (PoW) and the Proof-of-Stake (POS) systems.
Both of thee mechanisms accomplish the same task, albeit through different means. In a PoW system, network nodes compete to solve a complex mathematical equation. The first node to complete the equation gets to add the next block to the blockchain. This process is very secure but it does require intensive electrical usage. These high energy demands led developers to seek viable alternatives.
In a PoS system computers still compete to add the next block, but in a different manner. Users validate blocks utilizing a staking mechanism. Staking is the act of placing your coins in a synchronized network wallet. The nodes with the most coins and the longest staking times are more likely to get to add the next block of transactions and receive the reward.
Benefits of Distributed Ledger Technology
The benefits of DLT are too immense to ignore. DLT networks provide a transparent and secure method for businesses and individuals to conduct true peer-to-peer commerce. These systems provide effective management of dynamic data at levels that were unimaginable just a few years prior.
Trustless Nature
DLTs are a huge upgrade over centralized systems for many reasons. For one, these networks supply an immutability and transparency record of all transactions. In a public DLT, anyone can go into the network and verify what transactions transpired. This openness affords users more confidence.
Secure Alternative
Decentralization underpins the whole concept of a DLT. These networks are more secure because they remove any centralized attack vector. In a DLT network, the risk shift from one centralized target over to thousands of smaller vectors. Since these smaller nodes don’t possess vast amounts of valuable assets such as a central governing authority, they are less likely to experience a major attack.
Additionally, DLTs utilize high tech security to ensure their network remains pure. Nodes that enter malicious or false data get expelled from the network immediately. This strategy helps to streamline the entire consensus process.
Cost Reduction
The trustless nature of DLTs makes them an attractive alternative for firms seeking a secure network solution. DLTs such as Blockchain networks eliminate the need for third-party verification systems. Since each of these systems add more costs and time to each transaction, eliminating them increases efficiency significantly. Companies understand the peer-to-peer nature of these networks makes them more affordable to run than a centralized system.
Differences between Blockchain and DLTs
As of recently, the terms blockchain and DLT seem to have been muddied. Understanding the differences between these terms is an important step in becoming a more informed investor. Think of blockchain as only a tiny section of the distributed ledger sector. Importantly, not all DLTs are blockchains. In fact, DLTs have been around for centuries, long before the first computer ever existed. NEEBank applies Blockchain technology
History of DLTs
DLTs have a long and remarkable history. While the most common form of DLT spoken about today is blockchain, these systems have been in use for centuries. It’s vital to understand that blockchain tech improved upon DLTs because it was the first system to solve the double-spending problem.
Basically, electronic currencies that rely on DLTs were already around before Bitcoin. However, no one had configured how to remove the ability for nefarious actors to double-spend digital currency. It wasn’t until Satoshi Nakamoto introduced Bitcoin’s whitepaper that these issues finally came to an end and digital currencies took flight.
Some of the earliest forms of DLTs began in ancient times. Historians reported that in ancient Rome, there was a distributed ledger that allowed its citizens to make purchases in any region of the empire. This ledger helped to spur economic activity across the empire and helped Rome achieve its historic status.
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Mega eTextbooks release thread (part-28)! Find your textbooks here between $5-$25 :)

Please find the list below:
  1. Disease Gene Identification: Methods and Protocols, 2nd Edition: Johanna K. DiStefano
  2. Statistical Aspects of the Microbiological Examination of Foods, 3rd Edition: Basil Jarvis
  3. Revel for Social Problems, 14th Edition: Stanley Eitzen & Maxine Baca Zinn & Kelly Ei Smith
  4. Fundamentals of Human Resource Management: Pearson New International Edition, 3rd Edition: Gary Dessler
  5. Economics Today: The Micro View, 18th Edition: Roger LeRoy Miller
  6. Employment Law for Business, 8th Edition: Dawn Bennett-Alexander & Laura Hartman
  7. Surgical Exposures in Orthopaedics: The Anatomic Approach, 5th Edition: Stanley Hoppenfeld & Piet de Boer & Richard Buckley
  8. Project Management in Construction, 7th Edition: Sidney Levy
  9. Financial and Managerial Accounting, 7th Edition: John Wild & Ken Shaw & Barbara Chiappetta
  10. Handbook of Plant Disease Identification and Management, 1st Edition: Balaji Aglave
  11. Ubuntu Unleashed 2019 Edition: Covering 18.04, 18.10, 19.04, 13th Edition: Matthew Helmke
  12. Handbook of Insulin Therapies, 1st Edition: Winston Crasto & Janet Jarvis & Melanie J. Davies
  13. Python for Programmers: with Big Data and Artificial Intelligence Case Studies, 1st Edition: Paul J. Deitel & Harvey Deitel
  14. Medical Ethics: Accounts of Ground-Breaking Cases, 7th Edition: Gregory Pence
  15. Human Resource Management, 13th Edition: Gary Dessler
  16. The Biology and Therapeutic Application of Mesenchymal Cells, 2 Volume Set, 1st Edition: Kerry Atkinson
  17. Computer Security Fundamentals, 3rd Edition: William Chuck Easttom
  18. Hendee's Radiation Therapy Physics, 4th Edition: Todd Pawlicki & Daniel J. Scanderbeg & George Starkschall
  19. Nutrient Delivery, 1st Edition: Alexandru Grumezescu
  20. Technology Entrepreneurship: Taking Innovation to the Marketplace, 2nd Edition: Thomas N. Duening & Robert A. Hisrich & Michael A. Lechter
  21. Chemistry of Metalloproteins: Problems and Solutions in Bioinorganic Chemistry, 1st Edition: Joseph J. Stephanos & Anthony W. Addison
  22. Mathematical Statistics with Applications in R, 2nd Edition: Kandethody M. Ramachandran & Chris P. Tsokos
  23. Diagnostic Imaging: Genitourinary, 3rd Edition: Mitchell E. Tublin
  24. Comprehensive Management of Arteriovenous Malformations of the Brain and Spine, 1st Edition: Robert F. Spetzler & Douglas S. Kondziolka & Randall T. Higashida & M. Yashar S. Kalani
  25. Digital Design: With an Introduction to the Verilog HDL, 5th Edition: M. Morris R. Mano & Michael D. Ciletti
  26. Plasmids: Biology and Impact in Biotechnology and Discovery, 1st Edition: Marcelo E. Tolmasky & Juan C. Alonso
  27. Consumer Behavior: Buying, Having, and Being, Global Edition, 12th Edition: Michael R. Solomon
  28. Project Management Case Studies, 5th Edition: Harold Kerzner
  29. Medical Phisiology: Principles for Clinical Medicine, 4th Edition: Rodney A. Rhoades & David R. Bell
  30. Essentials of Contemporary Management, 7th Edition: Gareth Jones & Jennifer George
  31. Harmony and Voice Leading, 4th Edition: Thomas E. Benjamin & Michael Horvit & Robert S. Nelson
  32. Principles of Economics, 2nd Edition: Lee Coppock & Dirk Mateer
  33. Oral Microbiology and Immunology, 2nd Edition: Richard J. Lamont & George N. Hajishengallis & Howard F. Jenkinson
  34. Magnetic Resonance Imaging of the Brain and Spine, 5th Edition: Scott W. Atlas
  35. Accounting Information Systems: Controls and Processes, 3rd Edition: Leslie Turner & Andrea B. Weickgenannt & Mary Kay Copeland
  36. Strategic Corporate Social Responsibility: Sustainable Value Creation, 5th Edition: David Chandler
  37. Julien's Primer of Drug Action: A Comprehensive Guide to the Actions, Uses, and Side Effects of Psychoactive Drugs, 14th Edition: Claire D. Advokat & Joseph Comaty & Robert Julien
  38. The Grand Chessboard: American Primacy And Its Geostrategic Imperatives, 1st Edition: Zbigniew Brzezinski
  39. The Cosmic Perspective: The Solar System, 8th Edition: Jeffrey O. Bennett & Megan O. Donahue & Nicholas Schneider & Mark Voit
  40. Ultrastructure Atlas of Human Tissues, 1st Edition: Fred Hossler
  41. Advances in the Biology and Management of Modern Bed Bugs, 1st Edition: Stephen L. Doggett & Dini M. Miller & Chow-Yang Lee
  42. Patterns of World History: Volume One: To 1600, 1st Edition: Peter von Sivers & Charles A. Desnoyers & George B. Stow
  43. Genitourinary Imaging: A Core Review, 1st Edition: Matthew Davenport
  44. Evidence-based Obstetrics and Gynecology, 1st Edition: Errol R. Norwitz & Carolyn M. Zelop & David A. Miller & David L. Keefe
  45. Zoology, 10th Edition: Stephen Miller & John Harley
  46. Radical and Reconstructive Gynecologic Cancer Surgery, 1st Edition: Robert Bristow & Dennis Chi
  47. Davis's Diseases & Disorders A Nursing Therapeutics Manual, 6th Edition: Marilyn Sawyer Sommers
  48. Management & Cost Accounting, 6th Edition: Alnoor Bhimani
  49. Elements of Modern Algebra, 8th Edition: Linda Gilbert
  50. Psychiatric & Mental Health Nursing, 4th Edition: Katie Evans & Debra Nizette & Anthony O'Brien
  51. Molecular Biology: Different Facets, 1st Edition: Anjali Priyadarshini & Prerna Pandey
  52. Elementary Number Theory, 7th Edition: David Burton
  53. Accounting Information Systems, 14th Edition: Marshall B. Romney & Paul J. Steinbart
  54. Microeconomics, Global Edition, 9th Edition: Robert Pindyck & Daniel Rubinfeld
  55. Psychiatric and Mental Health Nursing Demystified, 1st Edition: Jim Keogh
  56. Entrepreneurship, 10th Edition: Robert Hisrich & Michael Peters & Dean Shepherd
  57. Ganong's Review of Medical Physiology, 26th Edition: Kim E. Barrett & Susan M. Barman & Jason Yuan & Heddwen L. Brooks
  58. Textbook of Obstetrics and Gynaecology: A life course approach, 1st Edition: Eric A.P. Steegers & Bart C.J.M. Fauser & Carina G.J.M. Hilders
  59. Engineering Mechanics: Statics, 8th Edition: James L. Meriam & L. G. Kraige & J. N. Bolton
  60. Basic Concepts of Psychiatric-Mental Health Nursing, 8th Edition: Louise Rebraca Shives
  61. Beckmann and Ling's Obstetrics and Gynecology, 8th Edition: Robert Casanova
  62. Biology: Concepts and Applications, 10th Edition: Cecie Starr & Christine Evers & Lisa Starr
  63. Estimating in Building Construction, 9th Edition: Steven J. Peterson & Frank R. Dagostino
  64. The Big Back Book: Tips & Tricks for Therapists, 1st Edition: Jane Johnson
  65. University Physics with Modern Physics, 14th Edition: Hugh D. Young & Roger A. Freedman
  66. Poisoning and Drug Overdose, 7th Edition: Kent Olson & Ilene Anderson & Neal Benowitz & Paul Blanc
  67. Koneman's Color Atlas and Textbook of Diagnostic Microbiology, 7th Edition: Gary W. Procop
  68. Experimental Psychology, 7th Edition: Anne Myers & Christine H. Hansen
  69. Marketing: An Introduction, 13th Edition: Gary Armstrong & Philip Kotler
  70. Gray's Anatomy for Students: With Student Consult, 3rd Edition: Richard Drake & A. Wayne Vogl & Adam W. M. Mitchell
  71. Chestnut's Obstetric Anesthesia: Principles and Practice, 5th Edition: David H. Chestnut & Cynthia A Wong & Lawrence C Tsen & Warwick D Ngan Kee & Yaakov Beilin & Jill Mhyre
  72. Chemistry: The Molecular Science, 5th Edition: John W. Moore & Conrad L. Stanitski
  73. Head, Neck and Dental Emergencies, 2nd Edition: Mike Perry
  74. Wong's Nursing Care of Infants and Children, 10th Edition: Marilyn J. Hockenberry & David Wilson
  75. Sports Emergency Care: A Team Approach, 3rd Edition: Robb Rehberg & Jeff G. Konin
  76. New Venture Creation: Entrepreneurship for the 21st Century, 10th Edition: Stephen Spinelli & Rob Adams
  77. Caring for the Vulnerable: Perspectives in Nursing Theory, Practice, and Research, 5th Edition: Mary de Chesnay & Barbara Anderson
  78. Geometry: The Line and the Circle: Maureen T. Carroll & Elyn Rykken
  79. Histories of Human Engineering: Tact and Technology: Maarten Derksen
  80. Land Restoration: Reclaiming Landscapes for a Sustainable Future, 1st Edition: Ilan Chabay & Martin Frick & Jennifer Helgeson
  81. Yamada's Handbook of Gastroenterology, 3rd Edition: Tadataka Yamada & John M. Inadomi & Renuka Bhattacharya & Jason A. Dominitz & Joo Ha Hwang
  82. Theoretical Physics 9: Fundamentals of Many-body Physics, 2nd Edition: Wolfgang Nolting & William D. Brewer
  83. Introduction to Programming with C++, 3rd Edition: Y. Daniel Liang
  84. Dental Emergencies, 1st Edition: Mark Greenwood & Ian Corbett
  85. Fundamentals of Physics and Chemistry of the Atmosphere, 2nd Edition: Guido Visconti
  86. Calculus: Early Transcendentals, 3rd Edition: William L. Briggs & Lyle Cochran & Bernard Gillett & Eric Schulz
  87. Educating Physical Therapists, 1st Edition: Gail Jensen
  88. Strategic Developments in Eurasia After 11 September, 1st Edition: Shireen Hunter
  89. Contemporary Issues in Healthcare Law and Ethics, 4th Edition: Dean Harris
  90. Transitioning from RN to MSN: Principles of Professional Role Development: Brenda Scott & Mindy Thompson
  91. Principles and Practice of Public Health Surveillance, 3rd Edition: Lisa M. Lee & Steven M. Teutsch & Stephen B. Thacker & Michael E. St. Louis
  92. Elementary Statistics: Picturing the World, 6th Edition: Ron Larson & Betsy Farber
  93. Human Sexuality in a World of Diversity, 6th Canadian Edition: Spencer A. Rathus & Jeffrey S. Nevid & Lois Fichner-Rathus & Alex McKay & Robin Milhausen
  94. Becoming Your Own Banker, 6th Edition: R. Nelson Nash
  95. Murach's MySQL, 3rd Edition: Joel Murach
  96. Intermediate Algebra, 13th Edition: Marvin L. Bittinger & Judith A. Beecher & Barbara L. Johnson
  97. Planning Health Promotion Programs: An Intervention Mapping Approach, 4th Edition: L. Kay Bartholomew Eldredge & Christine M. Markham & Robert A. C. Ruiter & Maria E. Fernández & Gerjo Kok & Guy S. Parcel
  98. Human Factors in Simple and Complex Systems, 3rd Edition: Robert W. Proctor & Trisha Van Zandt
  99. The Irony of Democracy: An Uncommon Introduction to American Politics, 17th Edition: Louis Schubert & Thomas R. Dye & Harmon Zeigler
  100. Understanding Earth, 7th Edition: John Grotzinger
  101. Nursing Research in Canada: Methods, Critical Appraisal, and Utilization, 4th Edition: Geri LoBiondo-Wood & Judith Haber & Cherylyn Cameron & Mina Singh
  102. The Philosophy of Film, 1st Edition: Thomas E. Wartenberg & Angela Curran
  103. Disaster Nursing and Emergency Preparedness, 4th Edition: Tener Goodwin Veenema
  104. Language in Mind: An Introduction to Psycholinguistics, 2nd Edition: Julie Sedivy
  105. Medical Anthropology: A Biocultural Approach, 3rd Edition: Andrea S. Wiley & John S. Allen
  106. Exploring Biology in the Laboratory, 3rd Edition: Murray P. Pendarvis & John L. Crawley
  107. Guide to Networking Essentials, 8th Edition: Greg Tomsho
  108. Social Psychology: A Storytelling Approach, 2nd Edition: Leonard Newman & Ralph Erber
  109. Managing Conflict: An Introspective Journey to Negotiating Skills, 1st Edition: Dorothy Balancio
  110. Environmental Change and Challenge: A Canadian Perspective, 5th Edition: Philip Dearden & Bruce Mitchell
  111. Brain and Behavior: A Cognitive Neuroscience Perspective, 1st Edition: David Eagleman & Jonathan Downar
  112. Cardiac/Vascular Nurse Exam Secrets Study Guide: Cardiac/Vascular Nurse Test Review for the Cardiac/Vascular Nurse Exam: Mometrix Media & Cardiac Vascular Nurse Exam Secrets
  113. Keeping the Republic: Power and Citizenship in American Politics, The Essentials, 9th Edition: Christine Barbour & Gerald Wright
  114. Principles of Environmental Science, 9th Edition: William Cunningham & Mary Cunningham
  115. Thomas' Calculus, 14th Edition: Joel R. Hass & Christopher E. Heil & Maurice D. Weir
  116. Pharmacology for Canadian Pharmacy Technicians, 1st Edition: Leland Norman Holland & Michael P. Adams & Jeanine Lynn Brice & Heather V. LeBlanc
  117. Cellular and Molecular Immunology, 9th Edition: Abul K. Abbas & Andrew H. Lichtman & Shiv Pillai
  118. Operations Management: Processes and Supply Chains, 11th Edition: Lee J. Krajewski & Manoj K. Malhotra & Larry P. Ritzman
  119. Jews, Christians, Muslims: A Comparative Introduction to Monotheistic Religions, 2nd Edition: John Corrigan & Frederick Denny & Martin S Jaffee & Carlos Eire
  120. Professional Nursing: Concepts & Challenges, 9th Edition: Beth Black
  121. Practical Homicide Investigation: Tactics, Procedures, and Forensic Techniques, 4th Edition: Vernon J. Geberth
  122. Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing: Materials, Processes and Systems, 7th Edition: Mikell P. Groover
  123. Genetics: A Conceptual Approach, 7th Edition: Benjamin A. Pierce
  124. Computer Science Illuminated, 7th Edition: Nell Dale & John Lewis
  125. The Globalization of World Politics: An Introduction to International Relations, 8th Edition: John Baylis & Steve Smith & Patricia Owens
  126. Behavioral Neuroscience, 9th Edition: S. Marc Breedlove & Neil V. Watson
  127. Canadian Human Resource Management: A Strategic Approach, 12th Edition: Hermann Schwind & Krista Uggerslev & Terry Wagar & Neil Fassina
  128. Brief Principles of Macroeconomics, 9th Edition: N. Gregory Mankiw
  129. Living in the Environment, 4th Canadian Edition: G. Miller & Dave Hackett & Carl Wolfe
  130. Principles of Economics, 9th Edition: N. Gregory Mankiw
  131. Principles of Microeconomics, 9th Edition: N. Gregory Mankiw
  132. Child Development, 9th Edition: Laura E. Berk
  133. Home, School, and Community Collaboration: Culturally Responsive Family Engagement, 4th Edition: Kathy Beth Grant & Julie A. Ray
  134. Set Lighting Technician's Handbook, 4th Edition: Harry Box
  135. Clinical Nurse Leader Certification Review, 2nd Edition: Cynthia R. King
  136. Basic Chemistry, 4th Edition: Karen C. Timberlake & William Timberlake
  137. Sparks & Taylor's Nursing Diagnosis Pocket Guide, 3rd Edition: Linda Phelps
  138. Family Theories: Foundations and Applications, 1st Edition: Katherine R. Allen & Angela C. Henderson
  139. The Earth and Its Peoples: A Global History, 7th Edition: Richard Bulliet & Pamela Crossley & Daniel Headrick & Steven Hirsch & Lyman Johnson
  140. Sociology in Action: A Canadian Perspective, 3rd Edition: Tami Bereska & Diane Symbaluk
  141. Operations Management: Processes and Supply Chains, 12th Edition: Lee J. Krajewski & Manoj K. Malhotra & Larry P. Ritzman
  142. Introduction to Food Science and Food Systems, 2nd Edition: Rick Parker & Miriah Pace
  143. Liaisons, Student Edition: An Introduction to French, 3rd Edition: Wynne Wong & Stacey Weber-Fève & Bill VanPatten
  144. Zuckerman Parker Handbook of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics for Primary Care, 4th Edition: Marilyn Augustyn & Barry Zuckerman
  145. Teaching in Today's Inclusive Classrooms: A Universal Design for Learning Approach, 3rd Edition: Richard M. Gargiulo & Debbie Metcalf
  146. The Biological Basis of Mental Health, 3rd Edition: William T. Blows
  147. Developing and Managing Electronic Collections: The Essentials: Peggy Johnson
  148. Western Civilization: Volume II: Since 1500, 10th Edition: Jackson J. Spielvogel
  149. Talking to Strangers: What We Should Know about the People We Don't Know, 1st Edition: Malcolm Gladwell
  150. Understanding Pathophysiology, 7th Edition: Sue E. Huether & Kathryn L. McCance
  151. Our Environment: A Canadian Perspective, 5th edition: Dianne Draper & Ann Zimmerman
  152. Criminal Law: Cases and Materials, 8th Edition: John Kaplan & Robert Weisberg & Guyora Binder
  153. A Photographic Atlas of Histology, 2nd Edition: Michael J Leboffe
  154. Dragons and Tigers: A Geography of South, East, and Southeast Asia, 3rd Edition: Barbara A. Weightman
  155. Climate Change Biology, 1st Edition: Jonathan A. Newman & Madhur Anand & Hugh A. L. Henry & Shelley L. Hunt & Ze'ev Gedalof
  156. The Power of Critical Thinking: 5th Canadian Edition: Chris MacDonald and Lewis Vaughn
  157. Principles of Fire Behavior and Combustion, 4th Edition: Richard Gann & Raymond Friedman
  158. Informatics Nurse Exam Secrets Study Guide: Informatics Test Review for the Informatics Nurse Certification Exam: Informatics Exam Secrets Test Prep Team
  159. General Chemistry, 10th Edition: Darrell Ebbing & Steven D. Gammon
  160. A Practical Guide to Computer Forensics Investigations, 1st Edition: Darren R. Hayes
  161. Basic Biomechanics, 8th Edition: Susan Hall
  162. Essay Writing for Canadian Students, 8th Edition: Roger Davis & Laura K. Davis
  163. Biology, 11th Edition: Peter Raven & George Johnson & Kenneth Mason & Jonathan Losos & Susan Singer
  164. Molecular Imaging, 1st Edition: Ralph Weissleder& Brian D. Ross & Alnawaz Rehemtulla & Sanjiv Sam Gambhir
  165. Criminology, 4th Edition: Frank Schmalleger
  166. A Theory of Truthmaking: Metaphysics, Ontology, and Reality: Jamin Asay
  167. The Routledge Handbook of Metaphysical Grounding, 1st Edition: Michael J. Raven
  168. Linear Algebra and Its Applications, 5th Edition: David C. Lay & Steven R. Lay & Judi J. McDonald
  169. Essentials of Human Communication, 9th Edition: Joseph A. DeVito
  170. Economics: Principles, Applications, and Tools, 9th Edition, Global Edition: Arthur O'Sullivan & Steven Sheffrin & Stephen Perez
  171. Global Health 101, 3rd Edition: Richard Skolnik
  172. Mathematical Proofs: A Transition to Advanced Mathematics, 4th Edition: Gary Chartrand & Albert D. Polimeni & Ping Zhang
  173. Concepts in Strategic Management and Business Policy: Globalization, Innovation and Sustainability, 15th Edition, Global Edition: Thomas L. Wheelen & J. David Hunger & Alan N. Hoffman & Charles E. Bamford
  174. Chemistry: The Central Science, 14th Edition, Global Edition: Theodore E. Brown & H. Eugene LeMay & Bruce E. Bursten & Catherine Murphy & Patrick Woodward & Matthew E. Stoltzfus
  175. Biopsychology, 10th Edition, Global Edition: John P. J. Pinel & Steven Barnes
  176. Electric Circuits, 11th Edition: James W. Nilsson & Susan Riedel
  177. Keeping the Republic; Power and Citizenship in American Politics, the Essentials, 8th Edition: Christine Barbour & Gerald C Wright
  178. Applied Behavior Analysis: Pearson New International Edition, 2nd Edition: John O. Cooper & Timothy E. Heron & William L. Heward
  179. Cryptography and Network Security: Principles and Practice, 7th Edition, Global Edition: William Stallings
  180. Operating Systems: Internals and Design Principles, 9th Edition, Global Edition: William Stallings
  181. Options, Futures, and Other Derivatives, 9th Edition, Global Edition: John C. Hull
  182. Invitation to the Psychology of Religion, 3rd Edition: Raymond F. Paloutzian
  183. Valuation: The Art and Science of Corporate Investment Decisions, 3rd Edition: Sheridan Titman
  184. Comprehensive Clinical Nephrology, 5th Edition: Richard J. Johnson & John Feehally & Jurgen Floege
  185. Miller & Freund's Probability and Statistics for Engineers, 9th Edition, Global Edition: Richard Johnson & Irwin Miller & John Freund
  186. Exploring Strategy: Text and Cases, 11th Edition: Gerry Johnson & Richard Whittington & Patrick Regnér & Kevan Scholes & Duncan Angwin
  187. Economics for Business, 7th Edition: John Sloman
  188. Essentials of Economics, 7th Edition: John Sloman & Dean Garratt
  189. Economics, 9th Edition: John Sloman & Dean Garratt & Alison Wride
  190. Essential Economics for Business, 5th Edition: Johnsloman & Jones Elizabeth
  191. Finite Mathematics, 7th Edition: Stefan Waner & Steven Costenoble
  192. The SAGE Encyclopedia of Surveillance, Security, and Privacy, 1st Edition: Bruce A. Arrigo
  193. Evolution, 4th Edition: Douglas J. Futuyma & Mark Kirkpatrick
  194. Adult Development and Aging, 7th Edition: John C. Cavanaugh & Fredda Blanchard-Fields
  195. Foundations of Finance, 9th Edition, Global Edition: Arthur J. Keown & John D Martin & J. William Petty
  196. Learning PHP, MySQL & JavaScript: With jQuery, CSS & HTML5, 4th Edition: Robin Nixon
  197. Head First Learn to Code: A Learner's Guide to Coding and Computational Thinking, 1st Edition: Eric Freeman
  198. Learning Swift: Building Apps for macOS, iOS, and Beyond, 3rd Edition: Jonathon Manning & Paris Buttfield-Addison & Tim Nugent
  199. Database Systems: Design, Implementation, & Management, 12th Edition: Carlos Coronel & Steven Morris
  200. Introduction to Solid Modeling Using SolidWorks, 13th Edition: William Howard & Joseph Musto
  201. Communications Receivers: Principles and Design, 4th Edition: Ulrich Rohde & Jerry Whitaker & Hans Zahnd
  202. Connect Core Concepts in Health, 15th Edition: Paul Insel & Walton Roth
  203. On Course: Strategies for Creating Success in College and in Life, 8th Edition: Skip Downing
  204. Vander's Human Physiology, 15th Edition: Eric Widmaier & Hershel Raff & Kevin Strang
  205. Biology, 4th Edition: Robert Brooker & Eric Widmaier & Linda Graham & Peter Stiling
  206. The Essentials of Statistics: A Tool for Social Research, 4th Edition: Joseph F. Healey
  207. Oracle 12c: SQL, 3rd Edition: Joan Casteel
  208. Global Business Today, 10th Edition: Charles Hill & G. Tomas M. Hult
  209. Project Management: The Managerial Process, 7th Edition: Erik Larson & Clifford Gray
  210. Organizational Behavior: A Practical, Problem-Solving Approach, 2nd Edition: Angelo Kinicki & Mel Fugate
  211. International Management: Culture, Strategy, and Behavior, 10th Edition: Fred Luthans & Jonathan Doh
  212. CorelDRAW X8: The Official Guide, 12th Edition: Gary David Bouton
  213. Physics for Scientists and Engineers: An Interactive Approach, 2nd Edition: Robert Hawkes & Javed Iqbal & Firas Mansour & Marina Milner-Bolotin & Peter Williams
  214. Programmable Logic Controllers, 5th Edition: Frank Petruzella
  215. Foundations in Microbiology, 10th Edition: Kathleen Park Talaro & Barry Chess
  216. Applied Numerical Methods with MATLAB for Engineers and Scientists, 4th Edition: Steven Chapra
  217. Tonal Harmony, 8th Edition: Stefan Kostka & Dorothy Payne & Byron Almén
  218. Discrete Mathematics, 8th Edition: Richard Johnsonbaugh
  219. Bates' Pocket Guide to Physical Examination and History Taking, 8th Edition: Lynn S. Bickley
  220. NANDA International Nursing Diagnoses: Definitions & Classification 2018-2020, 11th Edition: T. Heather Herdman & Shigemi Kamitsuru & Heather T. Herdman
  221. Biology: Concepts and Investigations, 4th Edition: Mariëlle Hoefnagels
  222. Biology: Concepts and Investigations, 3rd Edition: Mariëlle Hoefnagels
  223. Human Biology: Concepts and Current Issues, 8th Edition, Global Edition: Michael D. Johnson
  224. Messages: Building Interpersonal Communication Skills, 5th Canadian Edition: Joseph A. DeVito & Rena Shimoni & Dawne Clark
  225. The Interpersonal Communication Book, 14th Edition, Global Edition: Joseph A. DeVito
  226. Computational Systems Pharmacology and Toxicology, 1st Edition: Rudy J Richardson & Dale E Johnson & Noffisat Oki & David Faulkner
  227. Shelly Cashman Series Microsoft Office 365 & Office 2019 Introductory, 1st Edition: Sandra Cable & Steven M. Freund & Ellen Monk & Susan L. Sebok & Joy L. Starks
  228. The Practice of Emotionally Focused Couple Therapy: Creating Connection, 2nd Edition: Susan M. Johnson
  229. The Marriage Clinic: A Scientifically Based Marital Therapy, 1st Edition: John M. Gottman
  230. Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy with Couples and Families: A Comprehensive Guide for Clinicians, 1st Edition: Frank M. Dattilio & Aaron T. Beck
  231. International Marketing, 17th Edition: Philip R. Cateora & John Graham & Mary C Gilly
  232. Kaplan and Sadock's Concise Textbook of Clinical Psychiatry, 3rd Edition: Benjamin Sadock & Virginia Alcott Sadock
  233. Anthropology, 14th Edition: Carol R. Ember & Melvin Ember & Peter N. Peregrine
  234. The Men They Will Become: The Nature And Nurture Of Male Character: Eli Newberger
  235. Accounting, 27th Edition: Carl S. Warren & James M. Reeve & Jonathan Duchac
  236. ICD-10-CM 2019: The Complete Official Codebook, 1st Edition: American Medical Association
  237. Essentials of Human Anatomy & Physiology, 12th Edition, Global Edition: Elaine N. Marieb & Suzanne M. Keller
  238. Early Childhood Education Today, 14th Edition: George S Morrison
  239. Programming Bitcoin: Learn How to Program Bitcoin from Scratch, 1st Edition: Jimmy Song
  240. The Physiology and Biochemistry of Prokaryotes, 4th Edition: David White & James Drummond & Clay Fuqua
  241. Environmental Microbiology, 3rd Edition: Ian L. Pepper & Charles P. Gerba & Terry J. Gentry
  242. Industrial Microbiology: An Introduction, 1st Edition: Michael J. Waites & Neil L. Morgan & John S. Rockey & Gary Higton
  243. Introduction to Econometrics, Updated 3rd Edition, Global Edition: James H. Stock & Mark W. Watson
  244. Introduction to Econometrics, 3rd Edition: James H. Stock & Mark W. Watson
  245. Expert Oracle Application Express, 2nd Edition: Doug Gault & Dimitri Gielis & Martin DSouza & Roel Hartman
  246. The Art of Reasoning: An Introduction to Logic and Critical Thinking, 4th Edition: David Kelley
  247. Physics, 5th Edition: James S. Walker
  248. Applied Fluid Mechanics, 7th Edition: Robert L. Mott & Joseph A. Untener
  249. Applied Strength of Materials, SI Units Version, 6th Edition: Robert L. Mott & Joseph A. Untener
  250. Social Psychology, 12th Edition: David Myers & Jean Twenge
  251. Applied Strength of Materials, 6th Edition: Robert Mott & Joseph A. Untener
  252. Foundations of Nursing Research, 7th Edition: Rose Marie Nieswiadomy & Catherine Bailey
  253. Molecular Cell Biology, 8th Edition: Harvey Lodish & Arnold Berk & Chris A. Kaiser & Monty Krieger & Anthony Bretscher
  254. Machine Elements in Mechanical Design, 6th Edition: Robert L. Mott & Edward M. Vavrek & Jyhwen Wang
  255. DeVita, Hellman, and Rosenberg's Cancer, 11th Edition: Vincent T. DeVita & Steven A. Rosenberg & Theodore S. Lawrence
  256. Particle Image Velocimetry: A Practical Guide, 3rd Edition: Markus Raffel & Christian E. Willert & Fulvio Scarano & Christian J. Kähler
  257. Smith's Textbook of Endourology, 4th Edition: Arthur D. Smith & Glenn Preminger & Gopal H. Badlani & Louis R. Kavoussi
  258. College Algebra with Modeling & Visualization, 6th Edition: Gary K. Rockswold
  259. Financial Accounting Theory, 7th Edition: William R. Scott
  260. Biology Now, 2nd Edition: Anne Houtman & Megan Scudellari & Cindy Malone
  261. Psychological Science, 5th Edition: Michael Gazzaniga & Diane Halpern
  262. The Handbook of Technical Writing, 11th Edition: Gerald J. Alred & Charles T. Brusaw & Walter E. Oliu
  263. A Graphical Approach to College Algebra, 6th Edition: John Hornsby & Margaret L. Lial & Gary K. Rockswold
  264. Business Analytics, 4th Edition: Jeffrey D. Camm & James J. Cochran & Michael J. Fry & Jeffrey W. Ohlmann
  265. Biological Psychology, 13th Edition: James W. Kalat
  266. Business Communication Today, 14th Edition: Courtland L. Bovee & John V. Thill
  267. Geosystems Core, 1st Edition: Robert W. Christopherson & Stephen Cunha & Charles E. Thomsen & Ginger Birkeland
  268. Principles of Information Security, 6th Edition: Michael E. Whitman & Herbert J. Mattord
  269. Financial & Managerial Accounting, 14th Edition: Carl S. Warren & James M. Reeve & Jonathan Duchac
  270. Corporate Finance: Theory and Practice, 5th Edition: Pierre Vernimmen & Pascal Quiry & Maurizio Dallocchio & Yann Le Fur & Antonio Salvi
  271. Introductory Statistics, 10th Edition: Neil A. Weiss
  272. Introduction to Cryptography: Principles and Applications, 3rd Edition: Hans Delfs & Helmut Knebl
  273. Business Essentials, 8th Canadian Edition: Ronald J. Ebert & Ricky W. Griffin & Frederick A. Starke & George Dracopoulos
  274. Introduction to Mathematical Statistics, 8th Edition: Robert V. Hogg & Joseph W. McKean & Allen T. Craig
  275. The Routledge Companion to Business Ethics, 1st Edition: Eugene Heath & Byron Kaldis & Alexei Marcoux
  276. Geosystems An Introduction to Physical Geography, Global Edition, 9th Edition: Ginger H. Birkel & Robert W. Christopherson
  277. Scientific American Environmental Science for a Changing World, 2nd Edition: Jeneen InterlandI & Anne Houtman
  278. Precalculus, 10th Edition: Ron Larson
  279. The Human Brain Book: An Illustrated Guide to its Structure, Function, and Disorders, New Edition: Rita Carter
  280. Introduction to Materials Science for Engineers, 8th Edition: James F. Shackelford
  281. Adobe Dreamweaver CC Classroom in a Book, 1st Edition: Jim Maivald
  282. Trigonometry, 11th Edition: Margaret L. Lial & John Hornsby & David I. Schneider & Callie Daniels
  283. Investment Banks, Hedge Funds, and Private Equity, 3rd Edition: David P. Stowell
  284. Cognitive Neuroscience: The Biology of the Mind, 5th Edition: Michael Gazzaniga & Richard B. Ivry & George R. Mangun
  285. Cognitive Neuroscience: The Biology of the Mind, 5th Edition: Michael Gazzaniga & Richard B. Ivry (Author), George R. Mangun (Author)
  286. Project Management Theory and Practice, 3rd Edition: Gary L. Richardson & Brad M. Jackson
  287. Organic Chemistry: Structure and Function, 8th Edition: K. Peter C. Vollhardt & Neil E. Schore
  288. Read, Reason, Write: An Argument Text and Read, 11th Edition: Dorothy Seyler
  289. Fundamentals of Management: Management Myths Debunked!, Global Edition, 10th Edition: Stephen P Robbins & David A. De Cenzo & Mary Coulter
  290. Computer Networking: A Top-Down Approach, Global Edition, 7th Edition: James Kurose & Keith Ross
  291. An Introduction to Banking: Principles, Strategy and Risk Management, 2nd Edition: Moorad Choudhry
  292. The Immune System, 4th Edition: Peter Parham
  293. Biochemistry: Concepts and Connections, Global Edition, 1st Edition: Dean R. Appling & Spencer J. Anthony-Cahill & Christopher K. Mathews
  294. Writing about Writing, 3rd Edition: Elizabeth Wardle & Douglas Downs
  295. Data Wrangling with JavaScript, 1st Edition: Ashley Davis
  296. Experience Psychology, 4th Edition: Laura King
  297. An Introduction to Mathematical Statistics: Fetsje Bijma & Marianne Jonker & Aad van der Vaart & Reinie Erné
  298. Business Communication: Polishing Your Professional Presence, 3rd Edition: Barbara G. Shwom & Lisa Gueldenzoph Snyder
  299. Earth's Evolving Systems: The History of Planet Earth, 2nd Edition: Ronald E. Martin
  300. Business Ethics: Decision Making for Personal Integrity & Social Responsibility, 4th Edition: Laura Hartman & Joseph DesJardins & Chris MacDonald
  301. College Algebra and Trigonometry, Global Edition, 6th Edition: Margaret L. Lial & John Hornsby & David I. Schneider & Callie Daniels
  302. Essentials of MIS, 12th Edition: Kenneth C. Laudon & Jane P. Laudon
  303. Behavior Analysis and Learning: A Biobehavioral Approach, 6th Edition: W. David Pierce & Carl D. Cheney
  304. University Physics, 14th Edition: Hugh D. Young & Roger A. Freedman
  305. Earth System History, 4th Edition: Steven M. Stanley & John A. Luczaj
  306. Analytical Mechanics, 2nd Edition: Nivaldo A. Lemos
  307. Fundamentals of Management, 7th Canadian Edition: Stephen P. Robbins & David A. DeCenzo & Mary Coulter
  308. Computer Accounting with QuickBooks Online: A Cloud Based Approach, 2nd Edition: Carol Yacht & Susan Crosson
  309. Cost Accounting and Financial Management for Construction Project Managers, 1st Edition: Len Holm
  310. Business Continuity Management in Construction, 1st Edition: Leni Sagita Riantini Supriadi & Low Sui Pheng
  311. Contemporary Logistics, 12th Edition, Global Edition: Paul R. Murphy & A. Michael Knemeyer
  312. Mechanical Engineers' Handbook, Volume 1: Materials and Engineering Mechanics, 4th Edition: Myer Kutz
  313. Mechanical Engineers' Handbook, Volume 2: Design, Instrumentation, and Controls, 4th Edition: Myer Kutz
  314. Mechanical Engineers' Handbook, Volume 3: Manufacturing and Management, 4th Edition: Myer Kutz
  315. Mechanical Engineers' Handbook, Volume 4: Energy and Power, 4th Edition: Myer Kutz
  316. An Introduction to Mathematical Statistics and Its Applications, 6th Edition: Richard J. Larsen & Morris L. Marx
  317. Developmental Mathematics, 1st Edition: Robert F. Blitzer
  318. Thinking Mathematically, 7th Edition: Robert F. Blitzer
  319. Wardlaw's Contemporary Nutrition, 10th Edition: Anne Smith & Angela Collene
  320. Mathematical Statistics: An Introduction to Likelihood Based Inference, 1st Edition: Richard J. Rossi
  321. Asking the Right Questions, 11th Edition: M. Neil Browne & Stuart M. Keeley
  322. Asking the Right Questions, 11th Edition, Global Edition: M. Neil Browne & Stuart M. Keeley
  323. Crash Course Cardiology, 4th Edition: Antonia Churchhouse & Julian O. M. Ormerod & Michael Frenneaux
  324. A Graphical Approach to Precalculus with Limits, 7th Edition: John Hornsby & Margaret L. Lial & Gary K. Rockswold
  325. Unlocking Equity and Trusts, 5th Edition: Mohamed Ramjohn
  326. Public Speaking: The Evolving Art, 4th Edition: Stephanie J. Coopman & James Lull
  327. Social Psychology, 8th Edition: Michael Hogg & Graham Vaughan
  328. Human Resources Management in Canada, 12th Canadian Edition: Gary Dessler & Nita Chhinzer & Nina Cole
  329. Law Core Textbook Bundle: Equity and Trusts, 8th edition: Alastair Hudson
  330. Living Ethics: An Introduction with Readings: Russ Shafer-Landau
  331. Microsoft Project 2019 Step by Step, 1st Edition: Cindy Lewis & Carl Chatfield & Timothy Johnson
  332. Global Business Ethics: Responsible Decision Making in an International Context, 1st Edition: Ronald D Francis & Guy Murfey
  333. Construction Management: Theory and Practice, 1st Edition: Chris March
  334. Harrison's Endocrinology, 4th Edition: J. Larry Jameson
  335. Harrison's Neurology in Clinical Medicine, 4th Edition: Stephen Hauser & S. Andrew Josephson
  336. English Grammar Workbook For Dummies with Online Practice, 3rd Edition: Geraldine Woods
  337. Naked: The Dark Side of Shame and Moral Life, 1st Edition: Krista K. Thomason
  338. Ashcraft's Pediatric Surgery, 6th Edition: George W. Holcomb III & J. Patrick Murphy & Daniel J Ostlie
  339. Mobile Apps Engineering: Design, Development, Security, and Testing, 1st Edition: Ghita K. Mostefaoui & Faisal Tariq
  340. Lange Clinical Neurology, 10th Edition: Roger Simon & David Greenberg & Michael Aminoff
  341. International Textbook of Diabetes Mellitus, 2 Volume Set, 4th Edition: R. A. DeFronzo & E. Ferrannini & Paul Zimmet & George Alberti
  342. Java Programming, 9th Edition: Joyce Farrell
  343. Discovering Behavioral Neuroscience: An Introduction to Biological Psychology, 4th Edition: Laura Freberg
  344. How the Immune System Works, 5th Edition: Lauren M. Sompayrac
  345. Fundamentals of Electroceramics: Materials, Devices, and Applications, 1st Edition: R. K. Pandey
  346. Essentials of Hospital Neurology, 1st Edition: Karl E. Misulis & E. Lee Murray
  347. Biology of Humans: Concepts, Applications, and Issues, 6th Edition: Judith Goodenough & Betty A. McGuire
  348. Williams Textbook of Endocrinology, 13th Edition: Shlomo Melmed & Kenneth S. Polonsky & P. Reed Larsen & Henry M. Kronenberg
  349. Financial Management: Principles and Applications, Global Edition, 13th Edition: Sheridan Titman & Arthur J. Keown & John D Martin
  350. Case Studies in Immunology: A Clinical Companion, 7th Edition: Raif S. Geha & Luigi Notarangelo
  351. Handbook of MRI Technique, 4th Edition: Catherine Westbrook
  352. MRI: Basic Principles and Applications, 5th Edition: Brian M. Dale & Mark A. Brown & Richard C. Semelka
  353. Robbins Basic Pathology, 10th Edition: Vinay Kumar & Abul K. Abbas & Jon C. Aster & Vinay Kumar & Abul K. Abbas & Jon C. Aster
  354. Rosen's Emergency Medicine: Concepts and Clinical Practice: 2-Volume Set, 9th Edition: Ron Walls & Robert Hockberger & Marianne Gausche-Hill
  355. BNF for Children: 2018-2019, 1st Edition: Paediatric Formulary Committee
  356. Sitaraman and Friedman's Essentials of Gastroenterology, 2nd Edition: Shanthi Srinivasan & Lawrence S. Friedman
  357. Practical Gastroenterology and Hepatology Board Review Toolkit, 2nd Edition: Kenneth R. DeVault & Michael B. Wallace & Bashar A. Aqel & Keith D. Lindor
  358. Reinforcement Learning: An Introduction, 2nd edition: Richard S. Sutton & Andrew G. Barto
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Reverse Chance Me: Indian-American Male

Demographics: male, upper middle class, Asian Indian, heterosexual and cisgender, Long Island, New York, high school class of 2021
Intended Major(s): Mathematics
ACT/SAT/SAT II/PSAT: 35 (35E, 36M, 34R, 36S), 1570 (800 math, 770 english, 23/24 essay), 800 math2, 800 chem, 800 physics, 1500 (760 math, 740 english; hopefully i get national merit since I made the cut off)
UW/W GPA and Rank: 4.0UW, 103.96% weighted so far (out of 100%, APs weighted 1.08 and Honors 1.06; I'm not sure what it is out of 5 but everything's been an A or higher so far)
Coursework:
10th: AP World History (4, 99%), AP Computer Science Principles (4, 99%), AP Calculus BC (5, 97%); all other grades except Chemistry (96%) at least 97%
11th: AP Lang (5, 97%), Multivariable Calculus and Linear Algebra (through school, weighted as an AP, 98%; I get college credit from a state university for taking this), AP Physics 1 (5, 98%), AP United States History (5, 99%), AP Computer Science A (5, 100%), AP Statistics (self-studied, 5); all other grades 97% or higher
the above courses were taken through school, but I enrolled as a non-matriculated undergraduate student through the same state university that's giving me college credit for high school multi to take the following courses in Fall 2019 and Spring 2020 respectively:
"Logic, Language, and Proofs" (basically introduced me to the language of mathematics and abstract proof construction, etc.) (A+), Introduction to Real Analysis (third-year undergraduate course, probably) (A+)
12th: (incoming senior) AP Lit, Differential Equations (through school, weighted as an AP; I get college credit from a state university for taking this), AP Physics C (I don't know which yet but probably E/M), AP US Gov, AP Micro, AP Spanish Lang
the above courses are going to be taken through school, but I enrolled as a non-matriculated undergraduate student through the same state university that's giving me college credit for high school diffeq to take the following courses in Summer 2020, Fall 2020, and Spring 2021 respectively:
Applied Complex Analysis (well, I actually just finished this course, so I got an A), Advanced Linear Algebra, Analysis in Several Dimensions
like 12 APs in total by the end of senior year; I have taken the most rigorous courses available + courses at college
Awards:
AIME Qualifier (missed the USAMO cutoff by one AIME question's worth of index points, oops), HMMT/PUMaC awards
President's Volunteer Service Award, Gold (by the end of senior year, I should have lifetime ~650-675 volunteer hours): 3-time winner, 10th, 11th, and (expected) 12th
AP Scholar (I don't remember which though I have it on my application, but based on the scores I have, you can figure it out if you need to), Commended PSAT Scholar
UNSCO Qualifier, USAPhO Qualifier, USACO Silver
Regeneron Semifinalist, Scholastic Silver Writing Award (this was like 2-3 years ago, I don't remember much about it)
Essays:
they're actually coming on really good so far, not done writing though
Letters of Recommendations: my multi/diffeq teacher (really epic), my physics 1/c teacher (pretty good), my counselor (really good); additionally, I'm considering getting one from my principal (he first set me up to take the college math courses because he's an adjunct professor at the university I took courses at, so it should be cool), and a Princeton dude (see below for more explanation; he also used to mentor me before I started doing research)
Extracurriculars/Leadership Roles:
Science Olympiad (have won state medals before), Math Team (treasuresecretary 12th, top scorer in county-wide mathematics tournaments), Coding/CS Club (treasurer 11th, vice president 12th), National Honor Society, DECA (have qualified for the national-level competition, ICDC), did Model UN (but stopped after 10th, so probably won't put this on)
treasurer of our school's science research program from 2018 (personally offered this position by the director of the program) to when I graduate from high school in 2021
information technologist for a science education nonprofit
formerly unpaid teacher assistant (now paid 'intern'; my position got renamed because I've started doing more than just TAing) at a weekend mathematics enrichment program I used to attend when I was younger; I just set up and now own/manage the program's Discord as well as helped implement a grading system for the students on Google Classroom during the transition from real-life classes to online, Zoom classes due to COVID-19
CTO of a startup digital advertising business I co-founded with my friend (I personally made just under $15,000 so far, but the business's net worth is about $40,000)
in July 2018, I attended a summer program that related to computer science, electrical engineering, and informatics; we learned several skills such as programming Python (including NumPy, Matplotlib, and Pandas) in the context of physical engineering concepts and the Raspberry Pi; I engineering a program comparable to the widespread arcade game “Wheel of Fortune”
hospital volunteer (transporter, a large source of my volunteer hours)
Bitcoin/general cryptocurrency trademiner, I've set up several ASIC miners and studied their stock trends to optimize the amount of money I make from them, although I put a hold on this activity when crypto started dying again
10-year piano player (stopped in 9th grade though, but I went to state-level festivals and got perfect scores on my performances), 5-year viola player (planning to qualify for the state festival this year), JV Tennis (memes), 7-year soccer player (stopped after 9th grade, though)
also I'm probably not gonna put this on my application, but out of enjoyment, my friend and I conducted a satire analysis on our in-class chemistry performance through research, usage of spreadsheet/database applications, and Python’s machine learning modules; essentially, we collaborated on our mutual objective for his project in that we sought to “predict” when our grades would drastically fall, and a psychological explanation as to why we, somewhat academically-oriented students, tend to make the most drastic shortcomings when it comes to in-class performance ( used long short-term memory in the structures of recurrent neural networks which served as a model for Keras, a Python deep learning API, to make a grade prediction based on learning the ups and downs of our previous grades)
not sure if this counts for anything, but in May of 2012, in a Nassau County-based competition that I took against high schoolers double my age at the time, I won first place for the highest amount of problems correct so that's pretty cool I guess
finally, I've done over-the-summer online research under the guidance of a postdoctoral researcher in mathematics I got the contact of during a visit to Princeton University (did his doctoral thesis under the mentoring of Terence Tao, a world-renowned Fields Medal recipient)
Other life circumstances:
recovering narcotics addict (I had an injury while playing soccer in the spring of 9th grade and got hooked for a year after I didn't need them anymore), violent/alcohol-ridden home situation; I've had some issues with mental health in 9th and early 10th grade but I think I'm doing better now yay

I really wanna make it into some kind of Ivy/T20 kinda school, but I'm open to any suggestions as to where I stand in college admissions. Also, because I took all those college math courses, I got permission from the undergraduate director of mathematics to transfer those into credits for a bachelor's degree at that state school, so I can graduate two years early (2023 instead of 2025) if I get accepted and enroll there as a full-time student.
I'd really appreciate any help! Thanks!
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Artificial intelligence and blockchain

Artificial intelligence and blockchain
What is AI (artificial intelligence)? This is a program or code that can perform a specific function, change the patterns of its behaviour (for example, AI in video games) and even capable to self-learning. AI by itself can be of two types - simple (Narrow AI) and complicated (Strong AI). The first works with basic tasks, such as manipulating non-player characters in video games, verifying biometric data, or solving complex mathematical problems. The second is much more complicated, and exists only in theory so far, having wider possibilities, and one of the options for its using is blockchain.
EXBASE.IO
What can give unification between Blockchain and AI? Everything is quite simple - in the case of other areas, blockchain guarantees AI more security and data protection, at the same time AI provides self-learning, optimization of algorithms for building new chains and increased efficiency of management data that already exist.
Data exchange. The key essence of the blockchain is the exchange of data between nodes - network participants. On the basis of such networks, AI could learn, and then speed up the exchange of data between blocks and participants, speeding up the processes of processing transactions and finding new blocks.
Creation of supercomputers. Learning new algorithms by AI mostly depends on the availability of high power, which allows it to process a large amount of data. Considering that miners already provide their machines for solving certain tasks, it is logical that they can be used for the work of AI, providing it with additional resources.
Blockchain and AI undoubtedly need to be combined. And although at the current stage it is only guesswork and construction of possible concepts, in the near future their merger may lead to the highest growth in technology development.
#blockchain #bitcoin #cryptowallet #cryptocurrency

Website: https://exbase.io/ru/ Twitter: @exbase_io_ Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/exbase.io/ Telegram customer support: https://t.me/Exbaseofficial
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Mega eTextbooks release thread (part-28)! Find your textbooks here between $5-$25 :)

Please find the list below:
  1. Disease Gene Identification: Methods and Protocols, 2nd Edition: Johanna K. DiStefano
  2. Statistical Aspects of the Microbiological Examination of Foods, 3rd Edition: Basil Jarvis
  3. Revel for Social Problems, 14th Edition: Stanley Eitzen & Maxine Baca Zinn & Kelly Ei Smith
  4. Fundamentals of Human Resource Management: Pearson New International Edition, 3rd Edition: Gary Dessler
  5. Economics Today: The Micro View, 18th Edition: Roger LeRoy Miller
  6. Employment Law for Business, 8th Edition: Dawn Bennett-Alexander & Laura Hartman
  7. Surgical Exposures in Orthopaedics: The Anatomic Approach, 5th Edition: Stanley Hoppenfeld & Piet de Boer & Richard Buckley
  8. Project Management in Construction, 7th Edition: Sidney Levy
  9. Financial and Managerial Accounting, 7th Edition: John Wild & Ken Shaw & Barbara Chiappetta
  10. Handbook of Plant Disease Identification and Management, 1st Edition: Balaji Aglave
  11. Ubuntu Unleashed 2019 Edition: Covering 18.04, 18.10, 19.04, 13th Edition: Matthew Helmke
  12. Handbook of Insulin Therapies, 1st Edition: Winston Crasto & Janet Jarvis & Melanie J. Davies
  13. Python for Programmers: with Big Data and Artificial Intelligence Case Studies, 1st Edition: Paul J. Deitel & Harvey Deitel
  14. Medical Ethics: Accounts of Ground-Breaking Cases, 7th Edition: Gregory Pence
  15. Human Resource Management, 13th Edition: Gary Dessler
  16. The Biology and Therapeutic Application of Mesenchymal Cells, 2 Volume Set, 1st Edition: Kerry Atkinson
  17. Computer Security Fundamentals, 3rd Edition: William Chuck Easttom
  18. Hendee's Radiation Therapy Physics, 4th Edition: Todd Pawlicki & Daniel J. Scanderbeg & George Starkschall
  19. Nutrient Delivery, 1st Edition: Alexandru Grumezescu
  20. Technology Entrepreneurship: Taking Innovation to the Marketplace, 2nd Edition: Thomas N. Duening & Robert A. Hisrich & Michael A. Lechter
  21. Chemistry of Metalloproteins: Problems and Solutions in Bioinorganic Chemistry, 1st Edition: Joseph J. Stephanos & Anthony W. Addison
  22. Mathematical Statistics with Applications in R, 2nd Edition: Kandethody M. Ramachandran & Chris P. Tsokos
  23. Diagnostic Imaging: Genitourinary, 3rd Edition: Mitchell E. Tublin
  24. Comprehensive Management of Arteriovenous Malformations of the Brain and Spine, 1st Edition: Robert F. Spetzler & Douglas S. Kondziolka & Randall T. Higashida & M. Yashar S. Kalani
  25. Digital Design: With an Introduction to the Verilog HDL, 5th Edition: M. Morris R. Mano & Michael D. Ciletti
  26. Plasmids: Biology and Impact in Biotechnology and Discovery, 1st Edition: Marcelo E. Tolmasky & Juan C. Alonso
  27. Consumer Behavior: Buying, Having, and Being, Global Edition, 12th Edition: Michael R. Solomon
  28. Project Management Case Studies, 5th Edition: Harold Kerzner
  29. Medical Phisiology: Principles for Clinical Medicine, 4th Edition: Rodney A. Rhoades & David R. Bell
  30. Essentials of Contemporary Management, 7th Edition: Gareth Jones & Jennifer George
  31. Harmony and Voice Leading, 4th Edition: Thomas E. Benjamin & Michael Horvit & Robert S. Nelson
  32. Principles of Economics, 2nd Edition: Lee Coppock & Dirk Mateer
  33. Oral Microbiology and Immunology, 2nd Edition: Richard J. Lamont & George N. Hajishengallis & Howard F. Jenkinson
  34. Magnetic Resonance Imaging of the Brain and Spine, 5th Edition: Scott W. Atlas
  35. Accounting Information Systems: Controls and Processes, 3rd Edition: Leslie Turner & Andrea B. Weickgenannt & Mary Kay Copeland
  36. Strategic Corporate Social Responsibility: Sustainable Value Creation, 5th Edition: David Chandler
  37. Julien's Primer of Drug Action: A Comprehensive Guide to the Actions, Uses, and Side Effects of Psychoactive Drugs, 14th Edition: Claire D. Advokat & Joseph Comaty & Robert Julien
  38. The Grand Chessboard: American Primacy And Its Geostrategic Imperatives, 1st Edition: Zbigniew Brzezinski
  39. The Cosmic Perspective: The Solar System, 8th Edition: Jeffrey O. Bennett & Megan O. Donahue & Nicholas Schneider & Mark Voit
  40. Ultrastructure Atlas of Human Tissues, 1st Edition: Fred Hossler
  41. Advances in the Biology and Management of Modern Bed Bugs, 1st Edition: Stephen L. Doggett & Dini M. Miller & Chow-Yang Lee
  42. Patterns of World History: Volume One: To 1600, 1st Edition: Peter von Sivers & Charles A. Desnoyers & George B. Stow
  43. Genitourinary Imaging: A Core Review, 1st Edition: Matthew Davenport
  44. Evidence-based Obstetrics and Gynecology, 1st Edition: Errol R. Norwitz & Carolyn M. Zelop & David A. Miller & David L. Keefe
  45. Zoology, 10th Edition: Stephen Miller & John Harley
  46. Radical and Reconstructive Gynecologic Cancer Surgery, 1st Edition: Robert Bristow & Dennis Chi
  47. Davis's Diseases & Disorders A Nursing Therapeutics Manual, 6th Edition: Marilyn Sawyer Sommers
  48. Management & Cost Accounting, 6th Edition: Alnoor Bhimani
  49. Elements of Modern Algebra, 8th Edition: Linda Gilbert
  50. Psychiatric & Mental Health Nursing, 4th Edition: Katie Evans & Debra Nizette & Anthony O'Brien
  51. Molecular Biology: Different Facets, 1st Edition: Anjali Priyadarshini & Prerna Pandey
  52. Elementary Number Theory, 7th Edition: David Burton
  53. Accounting Information Systems, 14th Edition: Marshall B. Romney & Paul J. Steinbart
  54. Microeconomics, Global Edition, 9th Edition: Robert Pindyck & Daniel Rubinfeld
  55. Psychiatric and Mental Health Nursing Demystified, 1st Edition: Jim Keogh
  56. Entrepreneurship, 10th Edition: Robert Hisrich & Michael Peters & Dean Shepherd
  57. Ganong's Review of Medical Physiology, 26th Edition: Kim E. Barrett & Susan M. Barman & Jason Yuan & Heddwen L. Brooks
  58. Textbook of Obstetrics and Gynaecology: A life course approach, 1st Edition: Eric A.P. Steegers & Bart C.J.M. Fauser & Carina G.J.M. Hilders
  59. Engineering Mechanics: Statics, 8th Edition: James L. Meriam & L. G. Kraige & J. N. Bolton
  60. Basic Concepts of Psychiatric-Mental Health Nursing, 8th Edition: Louise Rebraca Shives
  61. Beckmann and Ling's Obstetrics and Gynecology, 8th Edition: Robert Casanova
  62. Biology: Concepts and Applications, 10th Edition: Cecie Starr & Christine Evers & Lisa Starr
  63. Estimating in Building Construction, 9th Edition: Steven J. Peterson & Frank R. Dagostino
  64. The Big Back Book: Tips & Tricks for Therapists, 1st Edition: Jane Johnson
  65. University Physics with Modern Physics, 14th Edition: Hugh D. Young & Roger A. Freedman
  66. Poisoning and Drug Overdose, 7th Edition: Kent Olson & Ilene Anderson & Neal Benowitz & Paul Blanc
  67. Koneman's Color Atlas and Textbook of Diagnostic Microbiology, 7th Edition: Gary W. Procop
  68. Experimental Psychology, 7th Edition: Anne Myers & Christine H. Hansen
  69. Marketing: An Introduction, 13th Edition: Gary Armstrong & Philip Kotler
  70. Gray's Anatomy for Students: With Student Consult, 3rd Edition: Richard Drake & A. Wayne Vogl & Adam W. M. Mitchell
  71. Chestnut's Obstetric Anesthesia: Principles and Practice, 5th Edition: David H. Chestnut & Cynthia A Wong & Lawrence C Tsen & Warwick D Ngan Kee & Yaakov Beilin & Jill Mhyre
  72. Chemistry: The Molecular Science, 5th Edition: John W. Moore & Conrad L. Stanitski
  73. Head, Neck and Dental Emergencies, 2nd Edition: Mike Perry
  74. Wong's Nursing Care of Infants and Children, 10th Edition: Marilyn J. Hockenberry & David Wilson
  75. Sports Emergency Care: A Team Approach, 3rd Edition: Robb Rehberg & Jeff G. Konin
  76. New Venture Creation: Entrepreneurship for the 21st Century, 10th Edition: Stephen Spinelli & Rob Adams
  77. Caring for the Vulnerable: Perspectives in Nursing Theory, Practice, and Research, 5th Edition: Mary de Chesnay & Barbara Anderson
  78. Geometry: The Line and the Circle: Maureen T. Carroll & Elyn Rykken
  79. Histories of Human Engineering: Tact and Technology: Maarten Derksen
  80. Land Restoration: Reclaiming Landscapes for a Sustainable Future, 1st Edition: Ilan Chabay & Martin Frick & Jennifer Helgeson
  81. Yamada's Handbook of Gastroenterology, 3rd Edition: Tadataka Yamada & John M. Inadomi & Renuka Bhattacharya & Jason A. Dominitz & Joo Ha Hwang
  82. Theoretical Physics 9: Fundamentals of Many-body Physics, 2nd Edition: Wolfgang Nolting & William D. Brewer
  83. Introduction to Programming with C++, 3rd Edition: Y. Daniel Liang
  84. Dental Emergencies, 1st Edition: Mark Greenwood & Ian Corbett
  85. Fundamentals of Physics and Chemistry of the Atmosphere, 2nd Edition: Guido Visconti
  86. Calculus: Early Transcendentals, 3rd Edition: William L. Briggs & Lyle Cochran & Bernard Gillett & Eric Schulz
  87. Educating Physical Therapists, 1st Edition: Gail Jensen
  88. Strategic Developments in Eurasia After 11 September, 1st Edition: Shireen Hunter
  89. Contemporary Issues in Healthcare Law and Ethics, 4th Edition: Dean Harris
  90. Transitioning from RN to MSN: Principles of Professional Role Development: Brenda Scott & Mindy Thompson
  91. Principles and Practice of Public Health Surveillance, 3rd Edition: Lisa M. Lee & Steven M. Teutsch & Stephen B. Thacker & Michael E. St. Louis
  92. Elementary Statistics: Picturing the World, 6th Edition: Ron Larson & Betsy Farber
  93. Human Sexuality in a World of Diversity, 6th Canadian Edition: Spencer A. Rathus & Jeffrey S. Nevid & Lois Fichner-Rathus & Alex McKay & Robin Milhausen
  94. Becoming Your Own Banker, 6th Edition: R. Nelson Nash
  95. Murach's MySQL, 3rd Edition: Joel Murach
  96. Intermediate Algebra, 13th Edition: Marvin L. Bittinger & Judith A. Beecher & Barbara L. Johnson
  97. Planning Health Promotion Programs: An Intervention Mapping Approach, 4th Edition: L. Kay Bartholomew Eldredge & Christine M. Markham & Robert A. C. Ruiter & Maria E. Fernández & Gerjo Kok & Guy S. Parcel
  98. Human Factors in Simple and Complex Systems, 3rd Edition: Robert W. Proctor & Trisha Van Zandt
  99. The Irony of Democracy: An Uncommon Introduction to American Politics, 17th Edition: Louis Schubert & Thomas R. Dye & Harmon Zeigler
  100. Understanding Earth, 7th Edition: John Grotzinger
  101. Nursing Research in Canada: Methods, Critical Appraisal, and Utilization, 4th Edition: Geri LoBiondo-Wood & Judith Haber & Cherylyn Cameron & Mina Singh
  102. The Philosophy of Film, 1st Edition: Thomas E. Wartenberg & Angela Curran
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Traditional Mining vs Green Staking: How UMI Cares for the Planet

Traditional Mining vs Green Staking: How UMI Cares for the Planet

https://preview.redd.it/fcymiab2fed51.jpg?width=1024&format=pjpg&auto=webp&s=a32e38290d6f8048ba7cc982bc2963369642eb7a
Cryptocurrencies are about a major contribution to the transformation of the existing financial system. They can dramatically change the world and be of great benefit to humankind. But looking for benefits mustn't do harm to the environment.
We've taken up this theme for a reason. It is indeed possible to do harm. In fact, harm is already being done. Do you want to know in what way? By traditional mining, which is necessary to maintain the Bitcoin network, and thousands of other Proof-of-Work-based cryptocurrencies.
Negative impact of traditional mining
In order to maintain the Bitcoin network or other PoW-based cryptocurrencies, miners have to solve complex computational math problems — by doing so they verify the authenticity of transactions and add valid ones to the blockchain. This process is dubbed mining and requires extensive computing resources.
The need to compete to solve a mathematical puzzle and receive a reward makes people use more and more powerful equipment. This is how new bitcoins are generated. With the cryptocurrency boom, harmless mining on computers turned into an endless race among miners. Today miners not only buy high-performance computers. Some miners create farms consisting of energy-consuming ASIC devices while others use huge plants to mine bitcoins.

A mining farm consisting of thousands of ASIC devices. Source.
As you know, intensive computing power requires elevated power expenses and leads to air pollution and a waste of natural resources. This poses a serious problem. Nowadays electric power stations, which are thermal power plants (TPP), burn fossil fuel, such as coal or natural gas, to produce electricity.
This process causes CO2 (carbon dioxide) emissions which adversely affect the biosphere — mining contributes to the greenhouse effect which heats the planet up. This consequently causes a global warming effect with its associated impacts on the environment and may pose threats to life on the planet. What is more, every minute we are breathing the same polluted air, thereby being at risk of a bunch of diseases and complications. All these factors shorten life expectancy for us and our children. Air pollution cause a great deal of premature deaths
The more carbon dioxide gets into the environment, the more harm it does. Carbon dioxide is a harmful by-product of industrial activity. The biting irony is that we use natural resources to generate these emissions, and these resources have limits too. Traditional mining significantly exacerbates the global problem and the situation has been deteriorating in recent years.
The effects of carbon footprint are already being felt
There are, undoubtedly, a lot of other factors that cause global environmental degradation, but the impact of mining should never be ignored. Bitcoin mining is estimated to produce as much carbon dioxide as that produced by industries of Estonia, Switzerland, the Czech Republic, Jordan, or Sri Lanka.
The entire bitcoin network is responsible for 22-22.9 million tons of CO2 per year — just think and try to imagine how much it is. Chinese miners represent about half (47%) of emissions. In China energy is cheap as it's produced by coal-fired thermal power plants. Once we add emissions produced by mining other cryptos, the numbers will double!

Powerful mining equipment. Source.
Two years ago, Nature Research journal published an article regarding Bitcoin emissions. It said: "We cannot predict the future of Bitcoin, but projected Bitcoin usage, should it follow the rate of adoption of other broadly adopted technologies, could alone produce enough CO2 emissions to push warming above 2 °C within less than three decades." Two years later, we can see the researchers' concerns had the ground — digital gold keeps to be mined with the same enthusiasm as well as the planet keeps to be polluted. "It [Bitcoin] alone could produce enough emissions to raise global temperatures as soon as 2033, " warn a group of researchers.
As an alternate solution, miners are encouraged to use renewable energy (wind, solar, etc.) — which can make bitcoin mining more environmentally friendly. Unfortunately, renewable energy sources account for just a small share of global energy which makes them impossible to be used widely. Moreover, in the pursuit of profit, miners don't seem particularly eager to get rid of profitable equipment which cost them a fortune.
Nonetheless, the fact that modern cryptocurrencies disapprove environment-damaging mining lets us hope for the early improvement of the situation. UMI is one of these cryptocurrencies.
UMI is a green cryptocurrency based on smart contract
Not all cryptocurrencies use computing power to generate new coins. For example, there are cryptocurrencies based on Proof-of-Stake (PoS) and Proof-of-Authority (PoA) technology. UMI is just like that.
As a substitute for mining and to incite users, UMI uses Staking Smart Contract which allows generating new coins with no energy expenses and powerful equipment. No waste of natural resources. Staking technology is perfectly safe for the planet. This is the latest technological development loop of crypto industry.

https://preview.redd.it/wpgh5cmoged51.jpg?width=1024&format=pjpg&auto=webp&s=761dd09821e16924dfeeb7db8e65b6a66e50c5d5
UMI can be definitely called an environmentally friendly cryptocurrency as it has no negative impact on the environment. Today this is of greatest importance for all of us. UMI staking neither endangers human health nor harms the environment. In other words, we are protecting the planet and all the people that inhabit it. This is something we can be really proud of. Because the environment influences our health, and good health is the most important thing in life.
As a final note, we would like to say that adhering closely to their ideology, the UMI team collaborates only with environmentally conscious partners who are concerned with the protection of the natural world. This was the main reason for choosing the ROY Club as our partner. We are certain this will be productive cooperation which will make this world a better place.
Join in and invite all your friends — together we can create new UMI coins using eco-friendly staking and care for our planet!
Best regards, UMI Team!
submitted by UMITop to u/UMITop [link] [comments]

Where is Bitcoin Going and When?

Where is Bitcoin Going and When?

The Federal Reserve and the United States government are pumping extreme amounts of money into the economy, already totaling over $484 billion. They are doing so because it already had a goal to inflate the United States Dollar (USD) so that the market can continue to all-time highs. It has always had this goal. They do not care how much inflation goes up by now as we are going into a depression with the potential to totally crash the US economy forever. They believe the only way to save the market from going to zero or negative values is to inflate it so much that it cannot possibly crash that low. Even if the market does not dip that low, inflation serves the interest of powerful people.
The impending crash of the stock market has ramifications for Bitcoin, as, though there is no direct ongoing-correlation between the two, major movements in traditional markets will necessarily affect Bitcoin. According to the Blockchain Center’s Cryptocurrency Correlation Tool, Bitcoin is not correlated with the stock market. However, when major market movements occur, they send ripples throughout the financial ecosystem which necessary affect even ordinarily uncorrelated assets.
Therefore, Bitcoin will reach X price on X date after crashing to a price of X by X date.

Stock Market Crash

The Federal Reserve has caused some serious consternation with their release of ridiculous amounts of money in an attempt to buoy the economy. At face value, it does not seem to have any rationale or logic behind it other than keeping the economy afloat long enough for individuals to profit financially and politically. However, there is an underlying basis to what is going on which is important to understand in order to profit financially.
All markets are functionally price probing systems. They constantly undergo a price-discovery process. In a fiat system, money is an illusory and a fundamentally synthetic instrument with no intrinsic value – similar to Bitcoin. The primary difference between Bitcoin is the underlying technology which provides a slew of benefits that fiat does not. Fiat, however, has an advantage in being able to have the support of powerful nation-states which can use their might to insure the currency’s prosperity.
Traditional stock markets are composed of indices (pl. of index). Indices are non-trading market instruments which are essentially summaries of business values which comprise them. They are continuously recalculated throughout a trading day, and sometimes reflected through tradable instruments such as Exchange Traded Funds or Futures. Indices are weighted by market capitalizations of various businesses.
Price theory essentially states that when a market fails to take out a new low in a given range, it will have an objective to take out the high. When a market fails to take out a new high, it has an objective to make a new low. This is why price-time charts go up and down, as it does this on a second-by-second, minute-by-minute, day-by-day, and even century-by-century basis. Therefore, market indices will always return to some type of bull market as, once a true low is formed, the market will have a price objective to take out a new high outside of its’ given range – which is an all-time high. Instruments can only functionally fall to zero, whereas they can grow infinitely.
So, why inflate the economy so much?
Deflation is disastrous for central banks and markets as it raises the possibility of producing an overall price objective of zero or negative values. Therefore, under a fractional reserve system with a fiat currency managed by a central bank – the goal of the central bank is to depreciate the currency. The dollar is manipulated constantly with the intention of depreciating its’ value.
Central banks have a goal of continued inflated fiat values. They tend to ordinarily contain it at less than ten percent (10%) per annum in order for the psyche of the general populace to slowly adjust price increases. As such, the markets are divorced from any other logic. Economic policy is the maintenance of human egos, not catering to fundamental analysis. Gross Domestic Product (GDP) growth is well-known not to be a measure of actual growth or output. It is a measure of increase in dollars processed. Banks seek to produce raising numbers which make society feel like it is growing economically, making people optimistic. To do so, the currency is inflated, though inflation itself does not actually increase growth. When society is optimistic, it spends and engages in business – resulting in actual growth. It also encourages people to take on credit and debts, creating more fictional fiat.
Inflation is necessary for markets to continue to reach new heights, generating positive emotional responses from the populace, encouraging spending, encouraging debt intake, further inflating the currency, and increasing the sale of government bonds. The fiat system only survives by generating more imaginary money on a regular basis.
Bitcoin investors may profit from this by realizing that stock investors as a whole always stand to profit from the market so long as it is managed by a central bank and does not collapse entirely. If those elements are filled, it has an unending price objective to raise to new heights. It also allows us to realize that this response indicates that the higher-ups believe that the economy could crash in entirety, and it may be wise for investors to have multiple well-thought-out exit strategies.

Economic Analysis of Bitcoin

The reason why the Fed is so aggressively inflating the economy is due to fears that it will collapse forever or never rebound. As such, coupled with a global depression, a huge demand will appear for a reserve currency which is fundamentally different than the previous system. Bitcoin, though a currency or asset, is also a market. It also undergoes a constant price-probing process. Unlike traditional markets, Bitcoin has the exact opposite goal. Bitcoin seeks to appreciate in value and not depreciate. This has a quite different affect in that Bitcoin could potentially become worthless and have a price objective of zero.
Bitcoin was created in 2008 by a now famous mysterious figure known as Satoshi Nakamoto and its’ open source code was released in 2009. It was the first decentralized cryptocurrency to utilize a novel protocol known as the blockchain. Up to one megabyte of data may be sent with each transaction. It is decentralized, anonymous, transparent, easy to set-up, and provides myriad other benefits. Bitcoin is not backed up by anything other than its’ own technology.
Bitcoin is can never be expected to collapse as a framework, even were it to become worthless. The stock market has the potential to collapse in entirety, whereas, as long as the internet exists, Bitcoin will be a functional system with a self-authenticating framework. That capacity to persist regardless of the actual price of Bitcoin and the deflationary nature of Bitcoin means that it has something which fiat does not – inherent value.
Bitcoin is based on a distributed database known as the “blockchain.” Blockchains are essentially decentralized virtual ledger books, replete with pages known as “blocks.” Each page in a ledger is composed of paragraph entries, which are the actual transactions in the block.
Blockchains store information in the form of numerical transactions, which are just numbers. We can consider these numbers digital assets, such as Bitcoin. The data in a blockchain is immutable and recorded only by consensus-based algorithms. Bitcoin is cryptographic and all transactions are direct, without intermediary, peer-to-peer.
Bitcoin does not require trust in a central bank. It requires trust on the technology behind it, which is open-source and may be evaluated by anyone at any time. Furthermore, it is impossible to manipulate as doing so would require all of the nodes in the network to be hacked at once – unlike the stock market which is manipulated by the government and “Market Makers”. Bitcoin is also private in that, though the ledge is openly distributed, it is encrypted. Bitcoin’s blockchain has one of the greatest redundancy and information disaster recovery systems ever developed.
Bitcoin has a distributed governance model in that it is controlled by its’ users. There is no need to trust a payment processor or bank, or even to pay fees to such entities. There are also no third-party fees for transaction processing. As the ledge is immutable and transparent it is never possible to change it – the data on the blockchain is permanent. The system is not easily susceptible to attacks as it is widely distributed. Furthermore, as users of Bitcoin have their private keys assigned to their transactions, they are virtually impossible to fake. No lengthy verification, reconciliation, nor clearing process exists with Bitcoin.
Bitcoin is based on a proof-of-work algorithm. Every transaction on the network has an associated mathetical “puzzle”. Computers known as miners compete to solve the complex cryptographic hash algorithm that comprises that puzzle. The solution is proof that the miner engaged in sufficient work. The puzzle is known as a nonce, a number used only once. There is only one major nonce at a time and it issues 12.5 Bitcoin. Once it is solved, the fact that the nonce has been solved is made public.
A block is mined on average of once every ten minutes. However, the blockchain checks every 2,016,000 minutes (approximately four years) if 201,600 blocks were mined. If it was faster, it increases difficulty by half, thereby deflating Bitcoin. If it was slower, it decreases, thereby inflating Bitcoin. It will continue to do this until zero Bitcoin are issued, projected at the year 2140. On the twelfth of May, 2020, the blockchain will halve the amount of Bitcoin issued when each nonce is guessed. When Bitcoin was first created, fifty were issued per block as a reward to miners. 6.25 BTC will be issued from that point on once each nonce is solved.
Unlike fiat, Bitcoin is a deflationary currency. As BTC becomes scarcer, demand for it will increase, also raising the price. In this, BTC is similar to gold. It is predictable in its’ output, unlike the USD, as it is based on a programmed supply. We can predict BTC’s deflation and inflation almost exactly, if not exactly. Only 21 million BTC will ever be produced, unless the entire network concedes to change the protocol – which is highly unlikely.
Some of the drawbacks to BTC include congestion. At peak congestion, it may take an entire day to process a Bitcoin transaction as only three to five transactions may be processed per second. Receiving priority on a payment may cost up to the equivalent of twenty dollars ($20). Bitcoin mining consumes enough energy in one day to power a single-family home for an entire week.

Trading or Investing?

The fundamental divide in trading revolves around the question of market structure. Many feel that the market operates totally randomly and its’ behavior cannot be predicted. For the purposes of this article, we will assume that the market has a structure, but that that structure is not perfect. That market structure naturally generates chart patterns as the market records prices in time. In order to determine when the stock market will crash, causing a major decline in BTC price, we will analyze an instrument, an exchange traded fund, which represents an index, as opposed to a particular stock. The price patterns of the various stocks in an index are effectively smoothed out. In doing so, a more technical picture arises. Perhaps the most popular of these is the SPDR S&P Standard and Poor 500 Exchange Traded Fund ($SPY).
In trading, little to no concern is given about value of underlying asset. We are concerned primarily about liquidity and trading ranges, which are the amount of value fluctuating on a short-term basis, as measured by volatility-implied trading ranges. Fundamental analysis plays a role, however markets often do not react to real-world factors in a logical fashion. Therefore, fundamental analysis is more appropriate for long-term investing.
The fundamental derivatives of a chart are time (x-axis) and price (y-axis). The primary technical indicator is price, as everything else is lagging in the past. Price represents current asking price and incorrectly implementing positions based on price is one of the biggest trading errors.
Markets and currencies ordinarily have noise, their tendency to back-and-fill, which must be filtered out for true pattern recognition. That noise does have a utility, however, in allowing traders second chances to enter favorable positions at slightly less favorable entry points. When you have any market with enough liquidity for historical data to record a pattern, then a structure can be divined. The market probes prices as part of an ongoing price-discovery process. Market technicians must sometimes look outside of the technical realm and use visual inspection to ascertain the relevance of certain patterns, using a qualitative eye that recognizes the underlying quantitative nature
Markets and instruments rise slower than they correct, however they rise much more than they fall. In the same vein, instruments can only fall to having no worth, whereas they could theoretically grow infinitely and have continued to grow over time. Money in a fiat system is illusory. It is a fundamentally synthetic instrument which has no intrinsic value. Hence, the recent seemingly illogical fluctuations in the market.
According to trade theory, the unending purpose of a market or instrument is to create and break price ranges according to the laws of supply and demand. We must determine when to trade based on each market inflection point as defined in price and in time as opposed to abandoning the trend (as the contrarian trading in this sub often does). Time and Price symmetry must be used to be in accordance with the trend. When coupled with a favorable risk to reward ratio, the ability to stay in the market for most of the defined time period, and adherence to risk management rules; the trader has a solid methodology for achieving considerable gains.
We will engage in a longer term market-oriented analysis to avoid any time-focused pressure. The Bitcoin market is open twenty-four-hours a day, so trading may be done when the individual is ready, without any pressing need to be constantly alert. Let alone, we can safely project months in advance with relatively high accuracy. Bitcoin is an asset which an individual can both trade and invest, however this article will be focused on trading due to the wide volatility in BTC prices over the short-term.

Technical Indicator Analysis of Bitcoin

Technical indicators are often considered self-fulfilling prophecies due to mass-market psychology gravitating towards certain common numbers yielded from them. They are also often discounted when it comes to BTC. That means a trader must be especially aware of these numbers as they can prognosticate market movements. Often, they are meaningless in the larger picture of things.
  • Volume – derived from the market itself, it is mostly irrelevant. The major problem with volume for stocks is that the US market open causes tremendous volume surges eradicating any intrinsic volume analysis. This does not occur with BTC, as it is open twenty-four-seven. At major highs and lows, the market is typically anemic. Most traders are not active at terminal discretes (peaks and troughs) because of levels of fear. Volume allows us confidence in time and price symmetry market inflection points, if we observe low volume at a foretold range of values. We can rationalize that an absolute discrete is usually only discovered and anticipated by very few traders. As the general market realizes it, a herd mentality will push the market in the direction favorable to defending it. Volume is also useful for swing trading, as chances for swing’s validity increases if an increase in volume is seen on and after the swing’s activation. Volume is steadily decreasing. Lows and highs are reached when volume is lower.
Therefore, due to the relatively high volume on the 12th of March, we can safely determine that a low for BTC was not reached.
  • VIX – Volatility Index, this technical indicator indicates level of fear by the amount of options-based “insurance” in portfolios. A low VIX environment, less than 20 for the S&P index, indicates a stable market with a possible uptrend. A high VIX, over 20, indicates a possible downtrend. VIX is essentially useless for BTC as BTC-based options do not exist. It allows us to predict the market low for $SPY, which will have an indirect impact on BTC in the short term, likely leading to the yearly low. However, it is equally important to see how VIX is changing over time, if it is decreasing or increasing, as that indicates increasing or decreasing fear. Low volatility allows high leverage without risk or rest. Occasionally, markets do rise with high VIX.
As VIX is unusually high, in the forties, we can be confident that a downtrend for the S&P 500 is imminent.
  • RSI (Relative Strength Index): The most important technical indicator, useful for determining highs and lows when time symmetry is not availing itself. Sometimes analysis of RSI can conflict in different time frames, easiest way to use it is when it is at extremes – either under 30 or over 70. Extremes can be used for filtering highs or lows based on time-and-price window calculations. Highly instructive as to major corrective clues and indicative of continued directional movement. Must determine if longer-term RSI values find support at same values as before. It is currently at 73.56.
  • Secondly, RSI may be used as a high or low filter, to observe the level that short-term RSI reaches in counter-trend corrections. Repetitions based on market movements based on RSI determine how long a trade should be held onto. Once a short term RSI reaches an extreme and stay there, the other RSI’s should gradually reach the same extremes. Once all RSI’s are at extreme highs, a trend confirmation should occur and RSI’s should drop to their midpoint.

Trend Definition Analysis of Bitcoin

Trend definition is highly powerful, cannot be understated. Knowledge of trend logic is enough to be a profitable trader, yet defining a trend is an arduous process. Multiple trends coexist across multiple time frames and across multiple market sectors. Like time structure, it makes the underlying price of the instrument irrelevant. Trend definitions cannot determine the validity of newly formed discretes. Trend becomes apparent when trades based in counter-trend inflection points continue to fail.
Downtrends are defined as an instrument making lower lows and lower highs that are recurrent, additive, qualified swing setups. Downtrends for all instruments are similar, except forex. They are fast and complete much quicker than uptrends. An average downtrend is 18 months, something which we will return to. An uptrend inception occurs when an instrument reaches a point where it fails to make a new low, then that low will be tested. After that, the instrument will either have a deep range retracement or it may take out the low slightly, resulting in a double-bottom. A swing must eventually form.
A simple way to roughly determine trend is to attempt to draw a line from three tops going upwards (uptrend) or a line from three bottoms going downwards (downtrend). It is not possible to correctly draw a downtrend line on the BTC chart, but it is possible to correctly draw an uptrend – indicating that the overall trend is downwards. The only mitigating factor is the impending stock market crash.

Time Symmetry Analysis of Bitcoin

Time is the movement from the past through the present into the future. It is a measurement in quantified intervals. In many ways, our perception of it is a human construct. It is more powerful than price as time may be utilized for a trade regardless of the market inflection point’s price. Were it possible to perfectly understand time, price would be totally irrelevant due to the predictive certainty time affords. Time structure is easier to learn than price, but much more difficult to apply with any accuracy. It is the hardest aspect of trading to learn, but also the most rewarding.
Humans do not have the ability to recognize every time window, however the ability to define market inflection points in terms of time is the single most powerful trading edge. Regardless, price should not be abandoned for time alone. Time structure analysis It is inherently flawed, as such the markets have a fail-safe, which is Price Structure. Even though Time is much more powerful, Price Structure should never be completely ignored. Time is the qualifier for Price and vice versa. Time can fail by tricking traders into counter-trend trading.
Time is a predestined trade quantifier, a filter to slow trades down, as it allows a trader to specifically focus on specific time windows and rest at others. It allows for quantitative measurements to reach deterministic values and is the primary qualifier for trends. Time structure should be utilized before price structure, and it is the primary trade criterion which requires support from price. We can see price structure on a chart, as areas of mathematical support or resistance, but we cannot see time structure.
Time may be used to tell us an exact point in the future where the market will inflect, after Price Theory has been fulfilled. In the present, price objectives based on price theory added to possible future times for market inflection points give us the exact time of market inflection points and price.
Time Structure is repetitions of time or inherent cycles of time, occurring in a methodical way to provide time windows which may be utilized for inflection points. They are not easily recognized and not easily defined by a price chart as measuring and observing time is very exact. Time structure is not a science, yet it does require precise measurements. Nothing is certain or definite. The critical question must be if a particular approach to time structure is currently lucrative or not.
We will measure it in intervals of 180 bars. Our goal is to determine time windows, when the market will react and when we should pay the most attention. By using time repetitions, the fact that market inflection points occurred at some point in the past and should, therefore, reoccur at some point in the future, we should obtain confidence as to when SPY will reach a market inflection point. Time repetitions are essentially the market’s memory. However, simply measuring the time between two points then trying to extrapolate into the future does not work. Measuring time is not the same as defining time repetitions. We will evaluate past sessions for market inflection points, whether discretes, qualified swings, or intra-range. Then records the times that the market has made highs or lows in a comparable time period to the future one seeks to trade in.
What follows is a time Histogram – A grouping of times which appear close together, then segregated based on that closeness. Time is aligned into combined histogram of repetitions and cycles, however cycles are irrelevant on a daily basis. If trading on an hourly basis, do not use hours.
  • Yearly Lows (last seven years): 1/1/13, 4/10/14, 1/15/15, 1/17/16, 1/1/17, 12/15/18, 2/6/19
  • Monthly Mode: 1, 1, 1, 1, 2, 4, 12
  • Daily Mode: 1, 1, 6, 10, 15, 15, 17
  • Monthly Lows (for the last year): 3/12/20 (10:00pm), 2/28/20 (7:09am), 1/2/20 (8:09pm), 12/18/19 (8:00am), 11/25/19 (1:00am), 10/24/19 (2:59am), 9/30/19 (2:59am), 8/29,19 (4:00am), 7/17/19 (7:59am), 6/4/19 (5:59pm), 5/1/19 (12:00am), 4/1/19 (12:00am)
  • Daily Lows Mode for those Months: 1, 1, 2, 4, 12, 17, 18, 24, 25, 28, 29, 30
  • Hourly Lows Mode for those Months (Military time): 0100, 0200, 0200, 0400, 0700, 0700, 0800, 1200, 1200, 1700, 2000, 2200
  • Minute Lows Mode for those Months: 00, 00, 00, 00, 00, 00, 09, 09, 59, 59, 59, 59
  • Day of the Week Lows (last twenty-six weeks):
Weighted Times are repetitions which appears multiple times within the same list, observed and accentuated once divided into relevant sections of the histogram. They are important in the presently defined trading time period and are similar to a mathematical mode with respect to a series. Phased times are essentially periodical patterns in histograms, though they do not guarantee inflection points
Evaluating the yearly lows, we see that BTC tends to have its lows primarily at the beginning of every year, with a possibility of it being at the end of the year. Following the same methodology, we get the middle of the month as the likeliest day. However, evaluating the monthly lows for the past year, the beginning and end of the month are more likely for lows.
Therefore, we have two primary dates from our histogram.
1/1/21, 1/15/21, and 1/29/21
2:00am, 8:00am, 12:00pm, or 10:00pm
In fact, the high for this year was February the 14th, only thirty days off from our histogram calculations.
The 8.6-Year Armstrong-Princeton Global Economic Confidence model states that 2.15 year intervals occur between corrections, relevant highs and lows. 2.15 years from the all-time peak discrete is February 9, 2020 – a reasonably accurate depiction of the low for this year (which was on 3/12/20). (Taking only the Armstrong model into account, the next high should be Saturday, April 23, 2022). Therefore, the Armstrong model indicates that we have actually bottomed out for the year!
Bear markets cannot exist in perpetuity whereas bull markets can. Bear markets will eventually have price objectives of zero, whereas bull markets can increase to infinity. It can occur for individual market instruments, but not markets as a whole. Since bull markets are defined by low volatility, they also last longer. Once a bull market is indicated, the trader can remain in a long position until a new high is reached, then switch to shorts. The average bear market is eighteen months long, giving us a date of August 19th, 2021 for the end of this bear market – roughly speaking. They cannot be shorter than fifteen months for a central-bank controlled market, which does not apply to Bitcoin. (Otherwise, it would continue until Sunday, September 12, 2021.) However, we should expect Bitcoin to experience its’ exponential growth after the stock market re-enters a bull market.
Terry Laundy’s T-Theory implemented by measuring the time of an indicator from peak to trough, then using that to define a future time window. It is similar to an head-and-shoulders pattern in that it is the process of forming the right side from a synthetic technical indicator. If the indicator is making continued lows, then time is recalculated for defining the right side of the T. The date of the market inflection point may be a price or indicator inflection date, so it is not always exactly useful. It is better to make us aware of possible market inflection points, clustered with other data. It gives us an RSI low of May, 9th 2020.
The Bradley Cycle is coupled with volatility allows start dates for campaigns or put options as insurance in portfolios for stocks. However, it is also useful for predicting market moves instead of terminal dates for discretes. Using dates which correspond to discretes, we can see how those dates correspond with changes in VIX.
Therefore, our timeline looks like:
  • 2/14/20 – yearly high ($10372 USD)
  • 3/12/20 – yearly low thus far ($3858 USD)
  • 5/9/20 – T-Theory true yearly low (BTC between 4863 and 3569)
  • 5/26/20 – hashrate difficulty halvening
  • 11/14/20 – stock market low
  • 1/15/21 – yearly low for BTC, around $8528
  • 8/19/21 – end of stock bear market
  • 11/26/21 – eighteen months from halvening, average peak from halvenings (BTC begins rising from $3000 area to above $23,312)
  • 4/23/22 – all-time high
Taken from my blog: http://aliamin.info/2020/
submitted by aibnsamin1 to Bitcoin [link] [comments]

Bitcoin mining difficulty example. THIS IS CRAZY!! Bitcoin - The Cryptocurrency Explained What is Bitcoin - Bitcoin Mining - How bitcoin works - Explained - In Hindi Probability in Bitcoin Mining: The Hashing Function Best Legit Bitcoin Cloud Mining Sites!! April 2020!! Earn Money Through The Internet!!

A block on Bitcoin blockchain can only contain a collection of transactions not exceeding 1MB of data. Therefore, the Bitcoin blockchain can only handle up to 7 transactions per second. Considering the current difficulty of complex mathematical problems, it takes on average 10 mins to apply the longest chain rule and validate a new block. It is a lot harder now to be a Bitcoin miner. Data from Glassnode, a crypto analytic firm, showed Bitcoin mining difficulty increased today by 11.3%, hitting a new all-time high. #Bitcoin mining difficulty increased today by 11.3%, hitting a new all–time high! It is the 3rd largest positive adjustment in the past two years. If I understand correctly, Bitcoin mining software "creates" bitcoins by solving complex mathematical equations. Is there a need for these problems to be solved, is there a value to solving these equations? If not, where does the solving of the math problems fit into the whole Bitcoin scenario? Bitcoin is a type of electronic currency (CryptoCurrency) that is autonomous from traditional banking and came into circulation in 2009. According to some of the top online traders, Bitcoin is considered as the best known digital currency that relies on computer networks to solve complex mathematical problems, in order to verify and record the details of each transaction made. Forget the big word we will just keep calling it complex mathematical problems. Whichever transaction’s mathematical problem is solved first will be added to another register where it is ...

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Bitcoin mining difficulty example. THIS IS CRAZY!!

Math Behind Bitcoin and Elliptic Curve Cryptography (Explained Simply) - Duration: 11:13. Aimstone 14,713 views. 11:13. Bitcoin Trading for Beginners (A Guide in Plain English) - Duration: 18:48. ... How does the hash function work in the world of Bitcoin mining? Peter Van Valkenburgh of the Coin Center explains how the hash function in Bitcoin uses entropy to select Bitcoin miners. As always ... Bitcoin is produced digitally by people by solving complex mathematical problems. It’s a type of cryptocurrency. Or we can call as mining by using computing power. Here you need to solve complex mathematical problems, or need to guess a random number, everything is generated by the system. Bitcoin Mining for free sounds simple, right?All the guessing or ... Here you need to solve complex mathematical problems, or need to guess a random number, everything is generated by the system. Bitcoin Mining for free sounds simple, right?All the guessing or ...

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